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International Politics Test 2
Terms in this set (112)
the use or threatened use of material power assets by an actor to compel one or more other actors to undertake a desired action, or not undertake an undesirable one; relies on coercion
the use of material or ideational power assets by an actor to induce other actors to undertake a desired action or not undertake an undesirable one; relies on persuasion.
(Christopher walker and Jessica Ludwig) the information warfare and economic manufacturing waged by authoritarian powers to shape public perceptions and behavior around the world
needs to be actualized, even if you have actual power, it is not always PERCIEVED by other countries
What are the characteristics of power?
Relative, situational, dynamic, and multidimensional
What is the formula for power developed by Ray Clines?
(C+E+M) x (S+W)
System Approach to power
generates output to other countries and then generates feedback. Foreign policy is a continuous process.
the smart use of hard/soft power
Arrow's paradox (impossibility theorem) states that cyclical majority rules and that opinions change over time.
It's ______________ to reach a collective decision for national interest
impossible (impossibility theorem)
What remains the primary mechanism used by actors of various types to pursue their interests and agendas?
Power is both a __________and a _______________
the idea that power of one type is not always transferable or applicable to other policy areas
What are some tools that can be used that would be considered soft power?
Offering positive incentives, or by representing an appealing and attractive example or ideal.
Why do realists tend to dismiss soft power?
They argue that countries follow other countries leads if they share the same interests, not because they admire them.
In global politics, power also has an ___________ dimension
What is an example of the United States ABSOLUTE power?
Our stockpile of 6,800 nuclear warheads.
Power does not exist in a vacuum. What does this statement mean?
Assessing any actor's power also requires one to take into account the power of the adversary or competitor with which it is engaged in.
What are the material factors that shape non-state actor's power?
The size and source of its budget and staff and its organizational efficiency + adaptability matter.
Material assets may translate into capabilities, but they do not automatically equate to a powerful _____________ ___________
an actor's willingness and/or ability to utilize its material power in the pursuit of its interests.
What two things equates to the effective use of power?
the fusion of material capabilities with political will
Power is also in part determined by how others perceive that actor's _______________.
consists of assets that you objectively posses and that you have the capacity and the will to use
A country's power based on other countries' perception of its current or potential power.
As the subjective aspect of power in a state _______________, the possibility of future aggression against it ________________
direct control over another actor
How structures define the range of social interactions
control over socially distant actors
similar to structural power but focuses more on production and reproduction of hierarchy in the system.
Level of analysis of approach
A social scientific approach to the study of global politics that analyzes phenomena from different perspectives.
The level of analysis framework is not a theory, rather a useful _____________ _______________
Which three ways does the level of analysis approach allow us to appraise power?
Individual, state, and system
Focuses on the ways in which people shape the conduct of global politics. These often occur through the conduct of foreign policy and diplomacy.
What is the most common category of those subjected to individual-level analysis?
The characteristic of individual-level analysis is changing with the increasing capability of what?
Everyday citizens/individuals to influence global politics. (wikileaks scenario)
What does individual level analysis seek to explain?
The ways in which humans function individually and collectively.
What is an important assumption of the individual level of analysis?
That humans are RATIONAL ACTORS, able to identify their interests and preferences and then order their actions accordingly.
bounded rationality (Herbet Simon)
A concept that rational choices of individuals are bound or limited by time pressures, imperfection information, and biases that influence those choices.
The tendency of individuals to hold fast to prevailing views of the world, and to discount contradictory ideas and information in the process.
The psychological tendency of individuals- particularly those in positions of power- to overrate their own potential for success, and underrate their own potential for failure.
Used to describe individuals that favor a more aggressive, coercive, and "hard-line" position often predicated on military strength.
Emphasizes the characteristics of states and how they make and implement foreign policy choices.
How a person acts in a given situation based on a combination of one's fundamental world-view and understanding of the nature of politics.
The state has traditionally been the ____________ actor in the global politics
assessing a state's use of power in pursuit of its foreign policy goals. The use of military, economic, diplomatic, and ideational tools in the pursuit of clearly defined foreign policy interests and objectives.
What are factors that we should isolate and study for state-level analysis?
state sovereignty, regime authority, military capability, and economic capacity.
What is perhaps the most important factor to take into account when we assess governmental sources of power?
What does state sovereignty determine in terms of power?
Whether or not a national group or political unit will have the status and clout necessary to engage in global politics
Regime types range along a scale that has absolute authoritarian governments on one end and democratic governments on the other.
In an ____________ global system with no universal world government, military power is a _____________ determinant of a state's power.
a concept that suggests a recurring tendency of powerful actors to over-extend themselves by taking on costly foreign policy commitments that deplete their finances.
What are some determinants of a state's economic power?
Financial position, natural resources, industrial and agricultural output.
What is the starting point for evaluating a state's economic power?
It's financial position and size
Focuses on identifying the constraints and opportunities that the global system imposes on state/nonstate actors alike.
Inductive approach, based on economic decisions (cost and benefit). Decisions are made based on becoming/choosing the option that gives you a net benefit maximizer.
What are the critiques to the rational approach?
There are individual personality differences, the future is unpredictable, and it is also difficult (impossible)to obtain all the information in any given situation
Two level game (Robert Putname) international level vs. domestic level, which one is most important?
the domestic level
War Powers Act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
states that loss is felt psychologically more than gain. In foreign policy, decision makers think more about loss rather than they think about gain.
Historical and reflective approach, sometimes known as meddling through.
Graham T. Allison Model 1 (Unitary Actor Model)
The state (whole country) becomes a single unit like a black box. You can't see inside the box, but you cam see the output.
Graham T. Allison Model 2 (Organizational Behavior Model)
Each organization has its own standard operating procedures
Graham T. Allison Model 3 (governmental politics model)
Individual interest and collective /organization interest contract
Pond analogy (Paul Ehlrich)
If there is a pong, and a weed grows, it will double its size every day --> exponential growth
Demographic Transition Theory
States that the best way to control population growth is economic development. (When you push for economic development, the death rate drops, but raising a kid becomes more expensive.)
Exclude human beings from the law of nature; exclude social costs
What four concepts were discussed in the Brundtland Commission?
Mutual inclusion, environmental accounting, moral responsibility of the rich to assist the poor, and intergenerational equity
Those who believe in ecological limits and the need to reduce ecological stress, thereby emphasizing conversation and the search for environmental solutions that reduce humanity's impact on ecosystems.
Neotraditionalists tend to be more _____________________ in their assessments of the state of the world and believe that _________________ are causing serious problems.
The neotraditionalist perspective is also deeply rooted in _________________ __________________.
emphasizes the study of a system, relationships among the parts and processes over structures.
Those who believe in humankind's mastery of the environment and possess great faith in technology to solve existing / future problems.
development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Trade peace theory
The theory that economic interdependence creates peace.
What are the benefits to free trade?
Trade consumption, research and development causes incentives for innovation and massive supply of goods for profits.
What are the concerns for fair trade?
National security concerns (dual-use technology), globalization vs. localization, populism for electoral gains (concerned with re-election), and inequality
What are some examples of non-tariff trade barriers?
public health, safety requirements, quota, subsidies, tax policy, etc
Shows that free trade is important, trade allows countries to improve their current situation.
What are the GATT/WTO principles?
Non-discrimination (you can't discriminate against any members by favoring one country in a trade agreement), reciprocity, transparency, safety values for states to attain non-economic objections, dispute settlement and enforcement, free-trade principle
The realpolitik theory that the state should its economic strength to further national interests. By extension, economic nationalists also advocate using state power to build that nation's economic strength.
Economic nationalists rely on political-economic strategies that often result in the _____________________ of weaker countires.
Economic nationalists also advocate furthering their country's policy goals by using __________ _______________, such as ___________ and _________________. They also advocate furthering their country's policy goals by using ___________________.
economic incentives, foreign aid, favorable trade terms, economic disincentives
Why are economic nationalists suspicious of free trade and other aspects of economic globalization?
Because these take away important national economic leaders and thus reduce their state's sovereignty and power.
A tax on imported goods
A theoretical approach holding that entities should and can conduct international economic relations cooperatively.
Internationalism favors _________ ________ to spread prosperity and allowing states to produce and export those products they can make most efficiently.
Trule / false - Internationalism opposes tariffs, domestic subsidies, sanctions and other economic tools that distort the free flow of trade
Where do the origins of liberal internationalism lie?
Modern economic liberals generally believe in the _____________ approach of ______ ________________ ____________ in the international economy. (laissez-faire politics)
capitalistic, eliminating political interference
What do advocates of a world systems approach believe?
That economic structure is a primary factor shaping political relationship and the power that they engender.
World systems adventure contend that the world is divided between ________ and _____________ countries
have, have nots
A strand of world systems theory which holds that underdevelopment and poverty in the global south are the result of exploitation by the global north.
Dependency theorists content that the global north's need for cheap primary goods, large markets for the North's manufactured goods, profitable investment opportunities, and low-wage labor cause what?
The global south to be dependent on the global north.
How does the global north maintain control of the global south?
Giving rich countries greater voting power in the IMF, etc.
Gross national product
The value of all domestic and international economic activity by a country's citizens and business
Gross domestic product
The value of all economic activity within a country by its own foreign individuals and companies
Purchasing power parity
a measure of how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country
Report values in terms of the worth in currency in the year being reported (includes inflated values)
Express value in terms of a base year adjusted for inflation
tangible products being bought and sold
Trade based on the purchase (import) from or sale (export) to another country of intangibles such as architectural fees, insurance premiums, royalties on movies, books, patents and other intellectual properties, shipping services, advertising fees, and educational programs.
Bretton Woods Conference of 1944
Meeting of Western allies to establish a postwar international economic order to avoid crises like the one that spawned World War II. Led to the creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, designed to regulate currency levels and provide aid to underdeveloped countries.
International monetary fund
Founded to assure currency convertibility and manage short-term balance of payments problems.
Founded to provide long-term loans to countries rebuilding their economies after WWII. Now they mainly focus on providing financing to the developing world.
World Trade Organization
Implements and enforces the GATT and mediates trade-related disputes between and among parties to the GATT.
Most IMF loans are subject to conditionality. The policy of the IMF is to attach conditions to their loans and grants.
World Bank Group
Four associated agencies that grant loans to LDCs for economic development and other financial needs.
International Development Association
Created in 1960, focuses on making loans at no interest to the poorest countries to have them provide basic human services, to improve economic productivity, and to create employment.
Let the market run for itself, let the market decide, market is the solution for country's problems.
Free trade agreement
a treaty between two or more countries to reduce or eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers and to otherwise promote freer economic exchange.
An economic agreement among Canada, Mexico, and the United States that reduced/eliminated many restrictions on foreign investments and other financial transactions.
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