19 terms

06 - Chapter 8 - Establishing a New Government 1777 to 1788

Chapter involves America creating a new government under the Articles of Confederation before it ultimately proved too weak to govern that nation. A new Constitution will be written in 1787 and adopted in 1788.
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Articles of Confederation
America's first government; Created a weak national government due to fears of a powerful government; Lasts from 1781-1789. Replaced by government under U.S. Constitution. Successes include the Northwest Ordinance and Failure's include Shay's Rebellion.
Northwest Ordinance
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Shay's Rebellion
Crisis that killed the government of the Articles of Confederation, poor farmers upset over growing debts, march upon the state capital. The state militia was able to stop it, but it scared the colonists into calling the Constitutional Convention.
"Great Compromise"
Larger states (Virginia) wanted representation according to population size, while smaller states (New Jersey) wanted every state equal. Connecticut proposed a compromise that created a legislature with 2 houses (a bicameral legislature)
House of Reps - Population / Senate - 2 senators per state
"Three-Fifths Compromise"
The Southern States wanted their slaves counted for representation purposes (they did not want to give them freedom citizenship) in the House of Representatives, the compromise counted every of 5 slaves as free persons for both taxation and representation
Republicanism
democratic government chosen by the people, decision are made by elected representatives and not by a king
Federalism
The division of power between the national government and the state governments
Checks and Balances
Preventing any branch of government from becoming too powerful, it provided for different ways each branch could check the power of the other and keep power balanced among the three
Popular Sovereignty
The idea that the people are the source of power for the government. The people exercise that power by electing representatives to Congress, and indirectly electing the President
Amendment
a change or update to the Constitution that allows for the Constitution keep with up with changes in the nation, the process is difficult to prevent constant changes that would create chaos
Ratification
The process of approving the new U.S. Constitution. Special conventions held in each state to decide upon it.
Federalists
Those who supported the new Constitution and felt that the national government needed more power to protect the nation. They wrote the Federalist Papers in order to persuade the nation that more power was necessary.
Included - Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay
Anti-Federalists
Opponents of the new Constitution. Feared it would create a government that was too strong. Also wanted a Bill of Rights to protect individual liberties and more powers given to the states.
Included - Patrick Henry and George Mason
Federalist Papers
A series of 85 essays written by Federalists Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay that successfully persuaded Americans that the U.S. Constitution must be adopted.
Alexander Hamilton
Federalist who called loudly for the Constitutional Convention and wanted a stronger central governments; main writer of the Federalist Papers; First Secretary of the Treasury in George Washington's cabinet and the creator of America's financial system.
James Madison
"Father of the Constitution," Federalist leader, and fourth President of the United States.
George Mason
Anti-Federalist from Virginia whose objections led to the drafting of the Bill of Rights (1725-1792)
Patrick Henry
Patriot from Virginia who said "Give me liberty or give me death!"; During Constitutional debate he becomes a powerful Anti-Federalist.
Bill of Rights
First Ten Amendments to the the U.S. Constitution. Were put in place due to the desires of the Anti-Federalists for listed rights against a Federal government that they feared could be too powerful. It is an example of both principles of Limited Government and Individual Rights.
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