What bronchus is WIDER, SHORTER, AND MORE VERTICAL and contains 3 lobes?
Right main bronchus
Type 1 cells
Form up to 97% of the alveolar cells; are flat and allow for exchange to the adjacent capillaries
Type 2 cells
Form up to 3% of the alveolar cells; are large and round; secrete surfactant; proliferate after lung damage; are source of precursors for new alveolar cells (type 1 & 2)
Iron in HEMOGLOBIN
In the FERROUS (Fe 2+) state, and CAN bind O2
Iron in METHEMOGLOBIN
In the FERRIC (Fe3+) state, and is UNABLE to bind O2
Characterized by hyperresponisiveness of the airways, resulting in bronchoconstriction
Panacinar (panlobar) emphysema
Characterized by dilation of the ENTIRE acinus (including the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveolar sacs), distributed uniformly throughout the lung. Associated with AL- ANTITRYSPIN DEFICIENCY
Characterized by dilation of the PROXIMAL part of the acinus (the respiratory bronchioles). The pattern of involvement is more irregular, and is often localized to the upper parts of the lungs. Associated with SMOKING
Destruction of alveolar walls lead to the loss of elastic recoil within the lung and dilation of the terminal air spaces
Mediated by a TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITY reaction involving IGE, MAST CELLS, often BEGINS IN CHILDHOOD, in patients with a FAMILY HISTORY OF ALLERGY
Includes asthma associated with CHRONIC BRONCHITIS as well as exercise or cold induced asthma
Acute respiratory distress sysndrome (ARDS)
A syndrome that results from DIFFUSE ALVEOLAR DAMAGE and LEAKAGE OF FLUID OUT OF THE PULMONARY CAPILLARIES into the intterstitium and alveolar spaces.
Bronchogenic carcinoma, is the leading cause of cancer related death in both men and women and is closely linked with cigarette smoking
Infection of lung parenchyma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, accounting for nearly 10% of all hospital admissions and for approximately 80,000 deaths in the U.S. each year.
Defined as the inability of the heart to generate a sufficient cardiac output to meet the metabolic demands of the body.
Congestive Heart Failure Presentation (T/F)
Dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, pulmonary edema, reduced renal perfusion, and an S3 heart sound. Most of these are due to failure of LV output and increased pulmonary venous pressure. Generally caused by left heart failure.
Is caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Usually affects children 5-10 years
MODS (Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome)
Involves the lung, kidney, heart, and liver
Tachycardia, oliguria, hypotension, weak pulses, mental status changes, and cool extremities
The most common form in which pain is induced by exertion.
More likely to lead to MI than stable angina. Pain occurs at rest
Also called Variant angina, it presents as intermittent chest pain at rest that is not related to activity, stress, or BP. Occurs at night and at rest due to coronary artery vasospasm
Myocardial Infarction (MI) (T/F)
Due to myocardial necrosis (died) secondary to inadequate cardiac tissue perfusion. Q wave and ST will be seen on ECG
Myocardial Infarction (MI) Presentation
Patients will describe prolonged (more than 30-45 minutes) crushing chest pain similar to angina, but not relieved by nitroglycerin, nausea, vomiting, sweating, shortness of breath and weakness
Starts to elevate 4-6 hours after the pain starts and last 7-10 days. It is more specific than CK-MB. It is the best to measure MI.