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Terms in this set (20)
The amount of stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected. In practice, this means that the presence or absence of a stimulus is detected correctly half of the time over many trials
The smallest amount of stimulation necessary to be detected 50%of the time
An absolute threshold is like a little kid pestering a parent to see how long it takes for the parent to notice. The absolute threshold would be the amount of whinning needed to get the reaction
The smallest amount by which a stimulus can be changed and the difference be detected half of the time
The slightest amount that a stimulus can be altered and be noticed.
An example of a difference threshold would like if the music was too lound and you asked your sister to turn it down, the difference threshold would be how much you sister would need to turn down the music for you to notice.
This concept says that the size of a JND is proportional to the intensity of the stimulua; the JND is large when the stimulus intensity is high and is small when the stimulus intensity is low
The law says says that a large stimulus has a large difference threshold and a small stimulus has a small difference threshold
An example of Weber's Law is like if you are lifting 100 lbs you might not notice a 5 lbs addition but you might notice a 20 lbs addition.
Perceptual analysis that emphasizes characteristics of the stimulus, rather than our concepts and expectations. " Bottom" refers to the stimulus, which occurs at step one of perceptual processing.
Bottom up processing is examining a stimulus simply by its physical characteristics
Bottom up processing would be like looking at a sphere and realizing that it was round, red and bumpy.
Perceptual analysis that emphasizes the perceiver's expectations, concept memories, and othre cognitive factors, rather than being driven by the characteristics of the stimulus. "Top" refers to a mental set in the brain--which stands at the "top" of the perceptual processing system.
Top down processing is adding in feelings, memories, and thoughts into your examination of a stimulus.
Top down processing would be like going back to a family reunions and trying to figure out who the people are, and how they are related to you.
The thin, light-sensitive layer at the back of the eyeball. The retina contains millions of photoreceptors and other nerve cells.
The section of the back of the eye where all the light is focused.
The retina is like the star on which the spot light rests. It allows the audience to see the actor upon which it rests. The shape of the actor and also the colors of their clothes.
Light-sensitive cells (neurons) in the retina that convert light energy to neural impulses. The photoreceptors are as far as light gets into the visual system.
Messengers that take light and translate it into neural impulses.
Photoreceptors are like translators. They take information in one language and translate it into another language which the brain can understand.
The tiny area of sharpest vision in the retina.
The area with the best vision.
The fovea is like the point of focus on a camera. It is where the eye is drawn because it is the clearest.
The bundle of neurons that carries visual information from the retina to the brain
A bundle of nerves that carry visual information to the brain
The optic nerves are like television wires because they transmit a moving picture from one place to another.
The point where the optic nerve exits the eye and where there are no photoreceptors. Any stimulus that falls on this area cannot be seen.
The place in the eye where nothing can be seen.
The blind spot is like having a black speck in the middle of your glasses. No light can come through and therefore you can't see
The idea that colors are sensed by three different types of cones sensitive to light in the red, blue, and green wavelengths. Explains the earliest stage of color sensation
The idea that all the colors we see are the combination of cones which are sensitive to red, blue, and green wavelengths
The trichromatic theory is like like a painter only using the primary colors to create his artwork
The idea that cells in the visual system process colours in complementary pairs, such as red or green or as yellow or blue. The opponent-process theory explains color sensation from the bipolar cells onward in the visual system.
The idea that we see colors in pairs of complementary pairs of colors.
The opponent process theory is like a person taking only two colors of lucky charms from the cereal bowl at once and eating only them together.
The sense of body orientation with respect to gravity. The vestibular sense is closely associated with the inner ear and in fact, is carried to the brain on a branch of the auditory nerve.
The orientation of the body and gravity.
If we were walking with bad posture our vestibular sense would tell us that we are slouching and that we should stand up straight.
The sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other.
The sense that tells us where are body parts are in relationship to each other.
If we were running along our kinesthetic sense would tell us where are legs are so that they would not keep hitting each other.
Sensory systems for processing touch, warmth, cold, texture, and pain.
Our senses of touch, warmth, cold, texure and pain.
If we jumped into a cold pool, touched a soft blanket, got poked with a spear, all of these senations are skin senses
An explanation for pain control that proposes we have a neural "gate" that can, under circumstances, block incoming pain signals.
A way explaining pain by saying that we have a neural gate through which we experience pain which can sometimes be closed
The meaningful product of perception-often an image that has been associated with concepts, memories or events, emotions, and motives
A mental image of the world woven with concepts, memories, emotions, and motives
The mental image of a family member is a percept because you have emotions and memories associated with that person
Information about depth that relies on the input of just one eye includes relative size, light and shadow, interposition, relative motion, and atmospheric perspective
Information about depth that uses only one eye.
A person trying to line up a put for golf could use monocular cues cause
Learning based inference
The view that perception is primarily shaped by learning (or experience), rather than by innate factors
Experiencing the world through what you learning
The different ways cultures see beauty is an example of learning based inference
Readiness to detect a particular stimulus in a given context as when a person who is afraid interprets an unfamiliar sound in the night as a threat.
The way people detect certain stimuluses because of a personal experience.
A perceptual set causes people who are scared of spiders tend to look and detect spiders that other people might not be able.
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