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AP World History - 2nd Wave Civilizations
Terms in this set (49)
shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. In this period the traditional Greek culture was changed by strong Eastern influences, especially Persian, in aspects of religion and government. Cultural centers shifted away from mainland Greece, to Pergamon, Rhodes, Antioch and Alexandria
-Era occurring after Alexander the Great's conquest.
-323 to 30 BC.
-Significant spread of Greek culture into areas like Egypt, Mesopotamia, and India. Greek language became very common, even in other countries.
Alexander the Great
United Ancient Greece; Hellenistic Age, conquered a large empire
-Son of Philip II and ruler of Greece.
-356 to 323 BC.
-His legendary military feats created an enormous, powerful Greek empire that stretched across many conquered lands.
Roman military and political leader. He was instrumental in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Dictator for life.
a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC.
-Collisions between Greek and Persian empires.
-Greek and Persian mainland.
-490 to 479 BC.
-The Greeks, underdogs, managed to defeat the Persians twice, on land and sea. The Greek's victory rationalized Athenian democracy and showed the valuable results of Greek freedoms.
features of civilization
Social etiquette, religion, education, literature
The Persian Empire
used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). the Achaemenid Empire that emerged under Cyrus the Great that is usually the earliest to be called "Persian." Successive states in Iran before 1935 are collectively called the Persian Empire by Western historians
-A civilization of Indo-European people who conducted massive imperial system guided by a powerful monarchical government.
-Iranian plateau just north of Persian gulf.
-550 to 330 BC.
-Had effective administrative system that provided a strong model for future societies, immense wealth and power, and a huge highway that hosted trade and communication.
region controlled exclusively by Greek, and usually having sovereignty. Ex. Crete
the Silk Road
interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel.
Indian caste system
system was a basically simple division of society into four castes (Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra) arranged in a hierarchy, with the "Untouchable" (Dalit) outcasts below this structure. But socially the caste system was more complicated, with many more castes and sub-castes and other divisions.
The social organization created by exchanging grants of lands r fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty and European Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service.
of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. A convert to Buddhism.
Ashoka -Emperor of Mauryan Empire.
-304 BC to 232 BC.
-He was a Buddhist emperor who expanded the Mauryan territory but then changed to a belief in peaceful coexistence with other peoples.
Bantu - migrations
To the 10th century, the wave reached the east African interior. Bantu-speaking herders in the north and farmers in the south mixed with older populations in the region. Others were moving to the African coast. Thus creating coastal trading ports.
Bantu Expansion -Located in southern Africa.
-Bantu-speaking peoples migrated around Africa and spread their common language.
-Bantu-speaking peoples encountered hunter-gatherers and displaced, absorbed, or eliminated them due to advantages in numbers, weaponry, and disease.
-Some hunter-gatherers survived into modern times.
-Batwa (Pygmy) people were respected by the Bantus because of their specialties in farming in Central America.
-New technologies and methods from Southeast Asia and other areas were incorporated in Bantu groups.
-Wide variety of societies in cultures, some with rigid political structures and some with free-spirited peoples who governed themselves.
-Bantu religion was less reliant on a spiritual figure and instead emphasized the importance of ancestral or nature spirits.
-Sacrifice was a significant ritual.
-Based on "continuous revelation" (still-incoming messages from the spirits).
Classic culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central American contemporary with Teotihuacán; extended over broad religion; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion.
Maya Civilization -Major classical civilization located in Mesoamerica.
-Most notable achievements occurred between 250 and 900 CE.
-Mathematical system consisting of zero and place notation, among other calculations, was created by intellectuals.
-Calendars were made.
-Most elaborate writing system in the Americas was formed.
-Landscape was almost completely engineered with water management, drainage systems, and terraced hillsides.
-Political system of city-states, local lords, and regional kingdoms.
-No central authority, warfare was common.
-Larger units of the Maya were populated urban and ceremonial centers ruled by kings or "state shamans" who could connect with the supernatural.
-None of the city-states, whether imperialistic or not, could unify the Maya.
-Rapid population collapse due to famine, epidemic, and warfare.
-Climate change and warfare could have caused demise, among other issues.
-Disappeared around 900 CE, showing the fragility of civilizations no matter the size and strength.
form of government in which a religion or faith plays a dominant role.
one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions. Worship of Wisdom
-Founded before 600 BC.
-Taught that Ahura Mazda was single divine figure, and that the cosmic conflict between good and evil was always present.
of hymns counted among the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas, and contains the oldest texts preserved in any Indo-Iranian language.
-Hindu works compiled by Brahmins.
-Date back to 1500 BC.
-Explained rituals and cultural traditions of the Hindus, and helped as a way to focus on Hinduism as a religion.
the law behind reincarnation
Four Noble Truths
fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy.
A Buddhist belief taught by Buddha, if these were followed than moksha could be achieved.
The Four Noble Truths:
1. All life is suffering
2. Suffering is caused by desire
3. There is a way out of suffering
4. The way out of suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path
way to the cessation of suffering, the fourth part of the Four Noble Truths.
The elements that must be done right in your life to stop desiring, which if followed you can achieve nirvana (moksha).
The elements of the Eightfold Path:
Buddha; founder of Buddhism.
Siddhartha Guatama (The Buddha) -Founder and worshiped figure of Buddhism.
-563 BC to 483 BC.
-Founded Buddhism and then became Buddha himself. He taught suffering and the end of suffering.
not a place nor a state, it is an absolute truth to be realized, and a person can do so without dying.
Nirvana, achieved by successfully following the Eightfold Path, when achieved it releases you from the cycles of reincarnation and the achievement of union with the universe. (Moksha)
set of philosophical teachings and religious practices rooted in a specific metaphysical understanding of the Chinese character Tao. For taoists, Tao could be described as the continuity principle behind the whole process of the constantly changing Universe.
-An ancient religion.
-Founded in sixth century BC.
-Involved withdrawal from the world into contemplation of nature, simple living, the end of striving, and self-meditation.
an East Asian ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius.
-Chinese tradition founded by Confucious.
-Founded between 600 BC and 500 BC.
-Confucious emphasized education and improvement. The moral example of superiors was something the inferior would follow. It became the official ideology of China and a central element to the Chinese educational system.
Mandate of Heaven
blessing of Heaven and that if a king ruled unwisely, Heaven would be displeased and would give the Mandate to someone else.
Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; defeated kingdom of Kush around 300 B.C.E. and succeeded by Ethiopia. Received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity
-Ancient civilization located in the Horn of Africa (present-day Eritrea and Ethiopia).
-Economic foundation was highly productive agriculture with plow-based farming.
-Around 50 CE, a substantial state emerged partly stimulated by trade in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
-Axum was the inner capital city centered around monumental building and royal patronage for the arts.
-Language was Geez, and state controlled most others around country.
-Introduced to Christianity around fourth century CE due to trade, religiously linked to Egypt.
-System of imperial expansion was practiced from fourth century CE to sixth century CE.
-Declined over next several centuries from environmental changes, stemming from intensive farming, as well as the rise of Islam, which altered trade routes and decreased revenue.
-Resembled large-scale Eurasian civilizations along with Meroe.
king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC, ruling under the name First Emperor.
-China (state of Qin).
-259 BC to 210 BC.
-He created a powerful Chinese empire with an effective bureaucracy and expanded China's boundaries.
Hinduism (Upanishads, Mahabharata, Bhagavad-Gita)
encompasses many religious traditions that widely vary by culture, as well as many diverse beliefs and sects. The estimates of Hinduism's origin vary from 3102 BCE to 1300 BCE, and it is generally regarded as the world's oldest major religion.
In Christian theology, legalism is belief, stated or supposedly implied, that law, not faith, is the pre-eminent principle of redemption
-An ancient Chinese philosophy.
-Originates as far back as 7th century BC, but exact dates are unknown.
-It was my hardheaded, practical philosophy that states the importance of laws and a system of reward and punishment in society. Legalists had a pessimistic view of human nature.
city founded by the Aztecs in 1325
Teotihuacan -City in Mesoamerica north of the Mayans that was formed around 150 BCE.
-Easily largest urban complex in the Americas at the time.
-Many unknown aspects.
-Thousands of residential apartments surrounding main avenues, inhabited by foreigners, specialized workers, and families of many generations.
-Art didn't depict selfish rulers, and things like murals often included abstract shapes.
-Had significantly large sphere of influence from 300 to 600 CE.
-Military was very powerful.
-Political and military activity was designed to obtain valued commodities from other areas.
-Many cultural aspects of Teotihuacan have lasted over time because the city itself was extremely immense and influential to others.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
-The Roman Peace.
-The Mediterranean world.
-0 to 2000 AD.
-It was the era of imperial Rome's greatest extent and authority.
Paul of Tarsus
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him.
-An influential Christian missionary.
-Cilicia and Rome.
-5 AD to 67 AD.
-He spread the gospel across the Roman Empire and converted countless people to Christianity through his missionary work.
Nomadic people from Asia who attacked the Roman Empire.
Julius Caesar's grandnephew, later known as Augustus. By defeating Mark Antony, he gained rule of all Roman lands. He was Rome's first true emperor.
-Ruler of Greece.
-63 BC to 14 AD.
-He maintained the forms of the republic during his rule, and he tried to give power to the Roman civilians under his authority.
-Ancient Nubian civilization located in the Nile Valley south of Egypt.
-Flourished from 300 BCE to 100 CE.
-Governed by an all-powerful, sacred monarch (occasionally a woman).
-Rulers were buried with human sacrificial victims.
-Variety of economic specialties, and smelting of iron and manufacture of iron tools and weapons were significant industries.
-Farmers weren't too dependent on irrigation.
-Long-distance trade connections initiated wealth and military power (contact with Mediterranean world and northeastern Africa).
-Seemed to move away from earlier Egyptian culture.
-Declined following 100 CE partly because of deforestation caused by wood for smelting.
-Kingdom overtaken in 340s CE by Axum.
-In following centuries, three separate Nubian states emerged and Christianity spread prominently.
-Became a part of growing world of Islam around 1300.
Located in Chaco canyon in present-day northwestern New Mexico.
-Five major pueblos emerged here from 860 to 1130 CE.
-These large settlements based on above-ground huts and gathering areas were the result of changes like a growing dependence on agriculture, an increasing population, and more intense trade.
-Population wasn't large, and biggest town was five stories high with 600 rooms.
-Elaborate, unnecessary roads leading out from Chaco could signify a sacred landscape.
-Elite, highly-skilled astronomers constructed an observatory.
-Became dominant center for turquoise ornament production.
-Regional commerce extended as far as Mesoamerica.
-Warfare, internal conflict, and occasional cannibalism occurred, however.
-A large-scale drought after 1130 ended the civilization, and by 1200, the houses were abandoned and the people were scattered among other areas.
By 200 BCE, Chavin cult had faded and been replaced by many other civilizations.
-Located in Peru and flourished between 100 and 800 CE.
-Complex irrigation system that helped fuel crops.
-Governed by warrior-priests, some who lived at tops of huge pyramids.
-"Pyramid of the Sun"- largest structure.
-Shaman-rulers would take hallucinogenic drugs and meditate spiritually between worlds.
-Humans were ritually sacrificed.
-Rulers had immense wealth that was reflected in elaborate burials.
-Had superbly skilled craftspeople who had amazing technical abilities with art and other things.
-Naturalistic art showed elite culture.
-Environment was very fragile and climate didn't cooperate.
-Dissolved by end of eighth century CE, partly due to dramatic weather pattern changes and ecological disruption.
Located in Peru.
-Strategic spot was situated on trade routes.
-Ceremonial centers date to 2000 BCE to 1000 BCE.
-Small town by 750 BCE.
-Clear distinctions between elite class and ordinary people. -Temple complexes were present with various architectural designs.
-Major deities were seen as animals.
-Religion was attracting over next several centuries.
-Culture was widely imitated as well.
-No empire emerged, instead a large religious cult spreading throughout the Peruvian Andes.
Caste as Varna and Jati -Caste systems in India.
-No clear origin.
-Varna caste system involved four levels of society: Brahmins, Kshatriya, Vaisya, and Sudra. The untouchables were outside of the Varna system and disregarded. The Jati system was a subdivision of the Varna system, and was based on occupations.
-Style of government in Athens, Greece.
-High point occurred during fourth century BC.
-While very different from other societies, it was still limited and excluded women, slaves, and foreigners, who were most of the population.
-A Hindu scripture.
-Likely written in second century BC.
-Involves a conversation between a prince and his guide about many issues in life. It teaches that people must perform the duty of their caste and affirmed that ordinary people could indeed make spiritual progress.
The ultimate goal of the Hindu religion, moksha is achieved when you are one with the universe.
-A style of thought rather than a religion.
-5th century BC to 4th century BC.
-Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were some of the major Greek philosophers who taught rationalism. Greek rationalism emphasized a secular explanation of nature and human life and the importance of logic and reason.
-Sacred Hindu texts compiled by Brahmins.
-1000 BC to 300 BC.
-Written anonymously, mystical and very philosophical, idea of Brahman being the World Soul, and the final, ultimate reality.
Era of Warring States Period
The period in China where no strong central government existed and China was filled with constant fighting and disorder. Lasted from ~700 to 221 BCE, afterward the Qin Dynasty gained control of China
A key concept of Confucianism meaning "respect for one's parents"
-Eastern Mediterranean, Israel, Palestine.
-9th century AD to 6th century AD.
-God is single holy figure and source of moral guidelines. The "Thirteen Principles of Jewish Faith" are significant to understanding Judaism. God creates all things and knows all people's thoughts.
The Chinese Qin Dynasty was the dynasty that won and ended the Warring States period, incorporated Legalism
Han Chinese Dynasty
that succeeded the Qin in 206 BCE, implemented Confucianism and lasted until 220 CE
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