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48 terms

Chapter 16/17 World War II

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Nationalism
loyalty to one's country above all else.
Joseph Stalin
totalitarian dictator of the Soviet Union
Totalitarian
Complete control over citizens, individuals have no rights, government suppresses all opposition.
Bennito Mussolini
totalitarian dictator of Italy
Fascism
Stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those of the individuals.
Adolf Hitler
totalitarian dictator of Germany, head of the Nazi Party. Fascist leader.
Mein Kampf
Book written by Adolf Hitler outlining his ideas about Nazism that became the plan of action for the Nazi Party.
Nazism
The doctrines of nationalism, racial purity, anti-Communism, and the all-powerful role of the State. The National Socialist German Workers Party, otherwise known as the Nazi Party. Nazism was advocated by Adolf Hitler in Germany.
Third Reich
The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in 1933.
Neutrality Acts
No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent. This displayed that America was not willing to go to war and desired to remain neutral and isolationist.
Winston Churchill
Britain's new prime minister during WWII who pleaded for US aid and who viewed the signing of the Munich Agreement as appeasement.
Appeasement
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
Nonaggression Pact
Agreement between Germany and Russia not to fight each other. Led to the invasion of Poland.
Blitzkrieg
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939
Axis Powers
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
Selective Training and service Act
First peacetime military draft, 16 million men (21-35) were registered, 1 million drafted for one year- only to serve in the western hemishpere.
Lend Lease Act
Approve by Congress in March 1941; The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."
The Atlantic Charter
A declaration of the right to freedom of trade
Allies
United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union (Big 3)
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Women's Auxiliary Army Corps
WAAC: May 15, 1942 women volunteers could serve in noncombatant positions; nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, electricians
Manhattan Project
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
War Production Board
government agency that decided which companies would make war materials and how to distribute raw materials
Rationing
a limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
Battle of Stalingrad
a 1942-1943 battle of World War II, in which German forces were defeated in their attempt to capture the city of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union thanks to harsh winter -turning point of war in Eastern Europe
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe.
Operation Overlord
The code name for the beginning plans of D-day and the invasion of France's coast
Omar Bradley
United States general who unleashed a massive air and land bombardment in the Allied victory in World War II (1893-1981)
George Patton
American General who led the Third Army to liberate Paris
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
The Yalta Conference
FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin met at Yalta, on the Black Sea, in Feb. 1945 to plan the future of Europe after WWII.
V-E Day
Victory in Europe Day - May 8, 1945
Harry S. Truman
33rd U.S. President. Took office after FDR's death. Made the decision to use the atomic bomb.
The Nuremberg Trials
were series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.
Internment
the name for the forced relocation and confinement of Japanese-Americans to concentration camps
Doolittle's Raid
bombing of Tokyo and other Japanese cities; following the attack on Pearl. Raised American morale
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. The U.S. avenged Pearl Harbor
Island Hopping
strategy of Allies in WWII of capturing some Japanese-held islands and going around others
Kamikaze
a fighter plane used for suicide missions by Japanese pilots in World War II
Iwo Jima
a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders
Battle for Okinawa
Last island to be taken in the Island Hopping before the invasion of Japan.
J. Robert oppenheimer
leader of Manhattan project
Enola Gay
name of the plane that dropped the first atomic bomb
Little Boy
the name of the FIRST atomic bomb, dropped on Hiroshima
V-J Day
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, September 2, 1945
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Fat Man
name of the SECOND atomic bomb, dropped on Nagasaki
Nagasaki
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).