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At La Venta, a(n) _______ site near present-day Villahermosa, Mexico, colossal heads were unearthed exhibiting what some scholars identify as fetal facial characteristics.


The archaeological site plan of _______ shows the site's slightly west-of-north alignment, a characteristic of several Mesoamerican that may be associated with ritual processions.

La Venta

Another term for Central America is _______.


Known for their elaborate textiles used as status symbols, the Inca also used fiber in the construction of armor and _______.

Rope bridges

Though weaving was already a tradition to their culture, the _______ adopted upright loom from Pueblo peoples.


The Feathered Serpent Pyramid at Teotihuacán is a six-level step pyramid built in the _______ style of alternating vertical and sloping step faces.


These Hopewell figures are unusual because of their depiction of the _______, a trait that may be found in people from many different parts of Asia as well as areas from which great migrations from this cradle of civilization occurred, including the indigenous populations of the Americas.


Noted for their agricultural system of terraces and irrigation, the Inca used bundles of knotted string called _______ for accounting and census purposes.


Cuzco, the capital of Inca empire was laid out to resemble giant_______.


The _______ were the largest civilization in pre-Columbian Americas.


The short-lived Nazca culture in present-day Peru is known primarily for its _______.


In the Aztec culture, sacrifices of prisoners-of-war from neighboring peoples were necessary to honor and re-create the sacrifice of _______ in ancient times (Teotihuacán) in order to ensure the continuation of the world.


In Mesoamerican cultures, sacrificial _______ was seen as nourishment of the earth in its capacity of creator of life.


_______, the Aztec goddess of life and death is recognizable in the culture's art by her necklace of human hearts, severed hands and skull.


The _______ included in panels of Maya relief carvings and ceramics decoration aide in their interpretation.


The three _______ made of serpentine at the Olmec site of La Venta are unusual; they were not meant to be seen as they were buried soon after completion.


On the relief carving on the lid of his sarcophagus, Pakal is depicted falling off the Wacah Chan, _______.

The Tree of Life

Consummate empire builders, the _______ arose from humble beginnings as a displaced tribe to commanding rulers of a vast network of luxury tributes from millions of people over a large geographic area in a 300-year period.


One of most important, best preserved and extensively studied Mayan cities is _______.


Which of the following is a unique function of Inca textiles?

For armor

Great Serpent Mound is an example of a(n) _______.

Pyramid of the Sun

From the traditions of most cultures, leadership and shamanism went hand-in-hand. Successful leaders mediated between the spiritual and physical worlds to assure the survival of their peoples. This mediation characteristically involved rites all of the following EXCEPT _______.


_______ are characteristic of Maya architecture, suggesting priests/rulers had great power.

Large stone temple

The Temple of the Sun at Teotihuacán faces toward the sunset on Aug. 12, the date corresponding to _______.

The beginning of time

In addition to the sophisticated stone masonry that built Machu Picchu, the Inca also engineered over _______ through their mountainous empire, allowing messages to be transported throughout the empire in less than one week.

15,000 miles of roads

Bent-corner Chest symbolizes the importance of family to _______ because it is carved of cedar to protect family heirlooms and clan regalia.

The Tlingit

_______, at its peak a cosmopolitan commercial center, remained a mythic center for Mesoamerican cultures for a thousand years after its decline, including an important pilgrimage site for Aztec rulers.


The _______ culture from modern-day Ecuador is one of the oldest settled cultures recorded in the Americas.


As seen from the earth, _______ evokes a rabbit to some Native American cultures.

The moon

_______ is the practice of self-induced bloodletting.


The relief carving of Pakal on his sarcophagus represents him connecting the Upperworld, Middleworld and Underworld of _______.

Maya cosmology

The Incas are well known for their __________ construction, as can be witnessed in Machu Picchu.


Pakal is the Maya word for _______.


_______, the most powerful of Palenque Maya kings, ruled for 67 years, July 29, 615 CE - August 31, 683 CE.

Lord pakal

The early Renaissance in Italy can be traced to:

the Medici family who ruled Florence...

Who was the most influential painter of the Baroque period in Europe?


Michelangelo's painting The Last Judgment (p. 468), for the Sistine Chapel, typifies a style that came to be known as:


The "Big 3" of the Italian High Renaissance, based in Florence, and later in Rome, and then Milan were:

Leonardo DaVinci

Michelangelo is considered a Mannerist and High Renaissance artist. What is it about his paintings that characterize the Mannerist style?

His turbulent compositions...

Donatello's sense of naturalism in figurative sculpture (p. 453) was in part inspired by:

Greek and Roman sculpture

Leonardo was as known in his time for his work as a(n) ____________ ,as much for his work as an artist.

Military engineer and weapons-designer

The cultures of the Pre-Columbian peoples (p. 463) are distinguished by their:

Monumental architecture and stone sculpure

Coatlicue (p. 465) is a major _______ deity.


What sets northern European artists (p. 454) apart from most artists of the Italian Renaissance is their interest in:

Rendering believable space in realistic detail

Which of these is an example of Baroque painting?

Caravaggio's The Calling of St. Matthew

Florentine Renaissance art prioritized disegno, drawing and delineation of forms, while Venetian Renaissance art prioritized:

the sensuousness of light and color

Which of these is an example of High Renaissance painting?

Raphael's School of Athens

Early Renaissance architect Brunelleschi is best known for:

developing linear perspective and designing the dome over the huge crossing in Florence Cathedral

Machu Picchu was a "getaway" for a(n) __________ruler.


Teotihuacan was an __________important commercial center in Mesoamerica.

It is not known which culture built it

Early Renaissance painter Masaccio is best known for:

Introducing complex narrative into painting and indicating a single, fixed light source that increased the overall naturalism of his compositions.

The sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini created Ecstasy of St. Theresa, a centerpiece of a chapel in Rome. It is typical of which style?


The style of Burial of Count Orgaz is highly eclectic and individual. The artist is:

El Greco

What sets northern European artists (p. 454) apart from most artists of the Italian Renaissance is their interest in:

Rendering believable space in realistic detail

Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa is thought to have had appeal to the Renaissance imagination in part because the portrait reveals:

The personality of the sitter

Florence became a cultural center of the Renaissance (p. 452) in a large part due to:

The Medici family

Sandro Botticelli's paintings, such as The Birth of Venus, reflect his interest in a philosophy called _______.


From 960 until 1279, during the Song Dynasty, (p. 447) Taoists in China emphasized the importance of self-expression. Their most important state positions were held by:

Poets, calligraphers, and painters

Mayan civilization (p. 464) reached its peak in Southern Mexico and Guatemala around:


The Baroque can be characterized as/by:

17th century, theatrical compositions rendered in very high contrast

The Limbourg Brothers' manuscript Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (p. 451) signified the return of something lost in art since antiquity. What was it?

"cast shadows"

Whose David was the first life-size nude sculpture since antiquity?


What did the early-Renaissance sculptor Donatello do that hadn't been done since Classical Antiquity?

He sculpted nude figures

In the 1330s, Petrarch (p. 452) conceived of a philosophy that emphasized the value of the individual and the pursuit and study of classical languages, literature, history, and philosophy. Today we call these disciplines the:


In Hundreds of Birds Admiring the Peacocks painting by Yin Hong, from the late fifteenth to early sixteenth century, the peacock symbolizes:

the Chinese emperor

In School of Athens, Raphael represents the two significant schools of philosophy, signified by the portrayal of _______ and ________ in the center of the composition.

Plato; Aristotle

Which of these paintings is an example of Romanticism?

Church's The Heart of the Andes

Which of these paintings is considered a Rococo painting?

Fragonard's Bathers

Angelica Kauffmann painted in the _______ style (p. 481), which was based on Greek and Roman models.


Théodore Géricault's The Raft of the Medusa (p. 485) helped to fuel which style?


In the early nineteenth century, a recurrent and significant theme (p. 485) began to appear in Romantic painting. What was it?

The notion of the sublime

The Post-Impressionists (p. 496) were united by their interest in:

extending Impressionism's formal innovations

Marie-Louise-Elizabeth Vigée-LeBrun's The Duchess of Polignac (p. 480) combines all the compositional tools of the ______ sensibility.


This artist of The Large Bathers pushed toward an idea of painting that established for the work an independent existence:

Paul Cézanne

Which artist rejected modern society and painted images of "primitive" island culture such as in The Day of the Gods?

Paul Gauguin

Rococo painting can best be characterized as:

the Baroque, eroticized, and depictions of the wealthy aristocracy at play

What individual chose the Neoclassical architectural style (p. 482) for his home in the United States?

Thomas Jefferson

In works such as Olympia, realist painter Edouard Manet was denying traditional painting style and drawing attention to:

his modernity and break with the past

Native American kachinas, like Buffalo Kachina (p. 494), are:

likenesses of supernatural characters endowed with powers that can be evoked when the figure is danced

Which of these paintings is an example of Neo-classical art?

David's The Death of Marat

One of the primary subjects of Neoclassical art (p. 481) is:


The Rococo style (pp. 479-480) has been characterized as:

the Baroque eroticized

Romanticism can best be described as:

dramatic, emotional, and subjective art reflecting the artist's personal style

Realism as an artistic movement in the mid-19th century refers to what?

the use of everyday people and activities in the paintings

In Romanticism (p. 484), regardless of the subject matter, paintings revealed the artist's:


Romanticist artists, like Frederic Edwin Church, viewed nature as:

a literal "sign" for the divine spirit.

What is the subject matter of most Impressionist painting?

Light itself, the way it plays across forms like architecture and landscape

The Arapaho Ghost Dance dress would have been worn _____________.

During a Plains Indian ritual meant to help transform the West back to what it had been before the settlement of Euro-Americans

What is the story behind Gericault's Raft of the Medusa?

The Medusa sunk off the coast of Africa due to the captain's incompetence and its poor survivors were adrift for days (most of them dying) while the captain and crew saved themselves.

The Realist movement (p. 489) was influenced by many ideas and worldviews including:

Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto.

Images such as View of Suzhou reveal the 18th century Chinese interest in__________.

European depictions of perspective and aerial views of cities

A leading painter in the Realist movement, the artist of Burial at Ornans declared that "painting is an essentially concrete art and can only consist of the presentation of real and existing things." The artist is:

Gustave Courbet.

The paintings of Giacomo Balla capture the fascination with movement characteristic of artists of which movement?


Joan Miró and Alexander Calder, both Surrealist artists, gravitated to the _______ in their indeciperable visual riddles consisting of biomorphic floating forms.


The artist who painted Houses at L'Estaque worked with Picasso to promote the style called Cubism. The artist's name is:

Georges Braque.

In what aspect of the twentieth century were Umberto Boccioni and other Futurist artists most interested?

movement and speed

The two major art movements of the 1960s were:

Minimalism and Pop Art.

In The Green Stripe (Madame Matisse), Henri Matisse dispensed with the use of _______ color in favor of _______ color to explore the expressive possibilities of color.

local, arbitrary

Pablo Picasso's Guernica represents an event in the:

Spanish Civil War.

"Postmodernism" has been defined in part as:

the presence of diverse traditions in a single work.

Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque helped pioneer Cubist landscapes. What earlier painter of landscapes inspired them?

Paul Cézanne

Marianne Nicholson's cliffside pictograph (a "copper") represents a Northwest Native American tradition that had been suppressed through most of the 20th century, called:

the potlatch.

Showing irreverence for tradition and rationality, Marcel Duchamp's Mona Lisa [L.H.O.O.Q.] exemplifies the _______ movement.


The _______ paintings of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning reflect the instability of energy and movement in self-expression rather than the order and containment of traditional conventions of representation.

Abstract Exressionist

Considered one of the greatest artistic responses to political oppression, Picasso's _______ was painted as condemnation of the blitzkrieg that leveled the city center of a small Basque town in the Spanish Civil War.


Using her work to struggle with the question of identity, this photographer's images are self-portraits.

Cindy Sherman

Which of these is an example of Dada art?

Marcel Duchamp's The Fountain

Which of these pieces is a Cubist painting?

Georges Braque's Violin and Palette

The twentieth-century painting movement most often associated with Henri Matisse is:


Wassily Kandinsky believed that the greatest device to express emotion was ________.


The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali illustrates how he looked to his subconscious (dreams, hypnosis, psychoanalysis) for his subject matter. What artistic movement is he associated with?


Henri Matisse was a leader of early 20th century artists who felt free to use color "arbitrarily" and were labeled, derogatorily, "Fauves", which translates __________.

"Wild Beasts"

Rejecting the frenetic approach of Pollock and de Kooning, Mark Rotho's Abstract Expressionist pantings convey a _______, not _______space.

meditative, active

As a reaction against Abstract Expressionism, Frank Stella's Empress of India exhibits the elegant, sparse content-less shape of _______.


Wassily Kandinsky's Sketch I for Composition VII is an example of:

German Expressionism.

Artists often find that the art they make has unintentional meaning. Georgia Papageorge's Africa Rifting: Lines of Fire: Namibia/Brazil is an example of this because:

one of their principal days of filming was 9/11/2001 and the banners came to signify the rifts separating humanity on a global scale.

Cubism can best be described as:

art that is about the process of painting.

The artist André Breton issued a manifesto that described the point of "resolution between these two states, dream and reality." What was this movement?


Chéri Samba's Problème d'eau. Où trouver I'eau? is an ironic comment on:

the US spending millions of dollars to look for water on Mars, while millions of people die for lack of water in Africa.

The Cubists freed painting from the necessity of representing the world in order to dwell on:


Which of these paintings is considered an Abstract Expressionist painting?

Willem de Kooning's Woman and Bicycle

Diego Rivera, David Siquieros, and Jose Clemente Orozco formed a new school of _______ inspired by the intense nationalism following the _______.

Muralists, Mexican Revolution

Stylistic characteristics of Neo-Expressionism include all of the following EXCEPT

Rigid style.

What is Kerry James Marshall saying about the public housing projects in his work Many Mansions?

The impossibility of transforming the concrete urban environment into a garden

This artist reflects on identity and cultural heritage in works such as Petroglyph Park.

Jaune Quick-to-See Smith

Freed from the rigidity of modernism, architects such as _______ have liberated structural walls, using three-dimensional computer modeling to make these new shapes possible.

Frank Gehry

_______ photos quote satirically the stereotypes of women in popular film, recycling them as a uniquely pure form of postmodernism.

Cindy Sherman's

Creating a work densely packed with information concerns most postmodern artists more than _______.

eternal beauty or shock value

Vik Muniz's Atlas (Carlao) was created by arranging_______ on his studio floor, photographing the arrangement, then painting from the photograph.


The color schemes and flat patterns illustrated in Amrita Sher-Gil's The Swing were directly influenced by the Post-Impressionism of Paul Gauguin and:

the ancient caves at Ajanta

Yasumasu Morimura's Portrait (Twins) appropriates the imagery of _______ to illustrate Japanese culture as slave to the dominant (male) forces of Western society.

Manet's Olympia

Her untitled photographic self-portraits, posed with props in scenes corresponding to female characters in popular culture, are performances that allow _______ to address the ways in which culture views women.

Cindy Sherman

Because of the diversity and plurality of postmodernism, many contemporary artists address the issues of _______ in their work.

Cultural and personal identity

_______ is Fred Wilson's response to common practices of museum display that contribute to racism and class bias.

Mining the Museum

In the late 1950s, a group of students in Nigeria formed the Zaria Art Society with the goal of expressing:

more of their African identity in their works

Characteristics of postmodern photography include all of the following EXCEPT

objectivity of the camera.

A key focus of much postmodern art is _______.

ironies of modern political life

Shazia Sikander combines her training in _______ with her graduate studies at Rhode Island School of Design in addressing the heterogeneity of her background.

the painting of traditional Persian miniatures

Anish Kapoor, the Indian-born British sculptor, explores the spiritual meanings of _______, posing questions about the origination and persistence of those meanings when displaced from their traditional context.


_______ may be tasteless and tacky but the public revels in it, a point Robert Venturi stresses in his book which opened the door to postmodern architecture.

Las Vegas

Vernacular architecture, like that in Tijuana, with cast-off materials scavenged from dumpyards serving as walls, fences, structures, and roofs is important to this young architect.

Teddy Cruz

In his painting, Problème d'eau. Où trouver l'eau?, Zairan artist Chérie Samba uses the postmodern dominance of _______ to examine the ironies of modern political life.


The urge to rebel against the norm lost its impact when such rebellion _______ the norm in most Western cultures.


What was the name of Robert Venturi's seminal text regarding Postmodern architecture?

Learning from Las Vegas

Postmodernism has been defined in part as _______.

the presence of diverse traditions in a single work

Using derogatory images of African-Americans from popular culture, _______ transformed the negative image of black servitude into an image of revolutionary heroism.

Bettye Saar

Discontent with International Style's _______ compelled architects to look forward in new directions.

sterile anonymity

Most art critics and historians agree that the era of modern art ended in the _____.


Fred Wilson's exhibit for the Maryland Historical Society made the point that the Historical Society:

had ignored and caricatured African Americans and Native Americans.

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