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Terms in this set (151)
Numbers4th book of the Torah. Tracks the Exodus of the Israelites in the wilderness; begins at Mt. Sinai and ends before they cross the Jordan river. Includes a preoccupation with numbers.Deuternomy5th book of Torah, consists mainly of sermons & speeches delivered by Moses to the Israelites before entering the Land of Israel. Emphasis on observance of the law.SemiticA member of the a group of people originally of Southwestern Asia that includes Jews and Arabs. These people are also considered descendants of Noah's son Shem.HebrewHistorically language of Israelites/Hebrews. Much of the Torah and rest of the Hebrew Bible was originally written in Classical (Biblical) Hebrew.AramaicA group of Semitic languages (dialects) originally of the ancient ArameansFour Assumptions (Kugel)Traditionalist: cryptic and symbolic, contain instructions relevant for all generations, harmonious and free of imperfections, divinely inspired and given.MidrashThe collection of stories used by rabbis to explain passages in the Tanakh. It is primarily to fill in breaks or gaps in the biblical narrative and resolve difficult interpretations of the original canon.Allegory, allegorical readinga story or poem that reveals a hidden meaning, typically moral or political in nature; an interpretive meaning which assumes that the Bible has various levels of meaning, focusing on the spiritual sense.Letter and SpiritRefers to the apoglze Paul of the New Testament's statement that the new covenant of Christianity required faith in God and his grace and thus an ehmpasis not only on th e letter of the law but the spirit of the law. HIs words soon began to be misunderstood as Christians began to associate Jews with literal readings while Christians undertook religion as non-literalism and finding spiritual and hidden allegorical meanings. Began the understanding that Scripture has layers upon layers of significance and that the bible is a vast and complicated mysterious world."By scripture alone"(Sola Scriptura) The Bible--not church teaching--is the only doctrine that contains instructions for salvation, and can teach us how to be holy.The word "Torah" meansteaching"Hermeneutics of suspicion"Assumption that there is a political undertone in all writings. Interpretation the torah with a certain level of skepticism. Strip away political implications of what you are reading to get a true reading of the text.biblical inerrancy//TODODocumentary hypothesistheory (Julius Wellhausen) that posits that the Hebew Bible is the product of a redactor/s' (R) combining of complete narrative by (4) different sources. Stands in opposition to traditionalist unified bible theory.JJahwist source. Earliest, distinctive because of YHWH; anthropomorphic representations; theme of sin-punishment-grace & powerful deliverer and provider of people's needs. Examples: second creation, Sodom and GomorrahEUse of Elohim for God. Focus is on the abstract, contractual relationship between Israelites and God. Texts attributed to the Elohist source comprise one third of Genesis (including the stories of the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Joseph) half of Exodus (most notably, the stories concerning prophet Moses) and parts of Numbers, are believed by scholars to have been composed around 850 BCE. Parallels and sometimes duplicates the J source.PPriestly. Believed by some MBS to be the earliest. Responsible for the "basic text", laws of priestly sacrificesand other rituals. Examples: 1st Creation, Adam's Genealogy, part of the Flood StoryDDeuteronomist source -- Deut, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings and Jeremiah. Genearlly agreed that D originated independently of Torah; origin traced usually to Babylonian Exile (6th Cent BCE) and associated with reworking of both Tetrateuch and Jeremiah.RThe redactor who combined JDEPAnthropomorphic/ismpersonification or attribution of human qualities or forms to non-humans.Athropopathic/ismattribution of human feelings to something that is not human.Polytheismthe worship or belief in multiple deities usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses.Monolatrya fath that exclusively worships 1 deity, but recognizes the existence of many gods (not to be confused with monotheism)Cosmic monismSpiritual belief that the world can be explained by a single unified source or being that is separate from man.Cosmic dualismbelief that world is created, organized, influenced by 2 dominant powers, who either compete with each other or have complementary functions. (God vs Satan for purposes of this class).Monotheismworship of one God and denial of existence of other Gods.Cultic figurines//TODOLECTURE 3 TIMELINE...LECTURE 3 MAP..."Let us make Adam in our image"Genesis -- suggests existence of other divine beings, despite never stating their creation explicitly; also confusing - does it suggest divine beings are human-like, or is this more similarity in mental state / personality?Adam's ribGarden of Eden, God creates Eve from his rib. Translated from Hebrew "Tsal'ah", could also mean chamber, side, or beam.Garden of Edenbiblical Garden of God. Origin associated with Aramaic root meaning "fruitful, well-watered."The SerpentThe serpent tempted Eve with fruit at the garden of Eden. Cursed by God to slide on his belly for the rest of time. Believed to be Satan in the form of a snake.Etiology, etiological storyA story that attempts to explain the causes of something or the origins behind it.The SabbathThe 7th day of the week, proclaimed the day of rest in Genesis 1. Partiuclarly emphasized by the P source, and included in the Decalogue. Exodus version of the Decalogue says the Israelites must keep the Sabbath because God rested on the 7th day; Deut version gives the Exodus at the reason.CainFirst son born to Adam and Eve and the younger brother of Cain. First murderer. Farmer. After God prefers Abel's offering, Cain kills Abel.Abelsecond son born to Adam and Eve and the younger brother of Cain. Killed by his brother; first human ever to die.The Tree of Lifea tree in the Garden of Eden said to have fruit that will give immortal life.The tree of Knowledge of Good and EvilA tree in the Garden of Eden, whose fruit was forbidden to Adam and Even, lest they "die." The tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil is a central player in the Fall (the serpent convinces Eve to eat of the tree, for it would open her eyes and make her like God).What was the forbidden fruit eaten by Eve and Adam// TODOEl, ElohimHebrew word for God; uniquely used by the E source in conjunction with the documentary hypothesis.YHWHDivine name for God of Israel.TetragrammatonRefers to first 4 Hebrew letters, it is transliterated as YHWH, verb meaning "to be." Helps MBS identify the J source. Translated as "the Lord"EnochSon of Seth, Adam and Eve's third son."The sons of God with the daughters of men"Genesis 6-1:4, sons of God find the daughters of men attractive, so they decide to take the daughters as wives. The three main views on the identity of the sons are they were fallen angels, they were powerful human rulers, or they were godly descendants of Seth intermarrying with descendants of Cain.Tower of Babelthe subject of a story in Genesis, which explains how the (united) people earth became fragmented into different peoples with different languages. The people decide to build a tower that would reach the heavens; for their arrogance, God makes them speak different languages so they cannot work together.120 yearssGen 6:3: "my breath shall not abide in man forever, since he too is flesh; let the days allowed him be 120 years." A set limit on how long a man can live.the Bow in the sky// TODOThe prohibition of spilling blood// TODONoahProtagonist of the Flood Story, builder of the Ark. Establishes a covenant between God and all living creatures on earth via a sacrifice made to God. Called the Noahic covenant, in which God says he will never again flood the earth. Also curses Canaan in a state of drunken nakedness.ArkGod commands Noah to build an ark to product his family and animals for the flood. Built out of gopher wood covered in and out with pitch. 300 cub long, 50 wide, 30 high.Assyriaempire to the north of Israel; would eventually take over the northern kingdom before itself being taken over by Babylonia; capital of Nineveh.Babyloniaanother empire, with its own flood story.Gilgameshepic poem from Mesopotamia and is one of the oldest surviving works of literature. In the story, there is a Great Flood sent by a deity to destroy civilization. Many parallels to flood in Genesis.MythA myth is a story explaining the origins of something. Often passed down as an oral tradition. Very often contains Gods or a Godpa.How long did the food last in the flood story?Distinguish between traditionalists and MBS! The rains came down for 40 days and 40 nights, and the water prevailed on the earth for 150 days after that. Then after that, the waters took about half a year to fully recede, and Noah saw that on the 601st year of his life, the ground was dry. So in total, about 1 year.Clean/pure vs unclean/impure animals? (flood)// TODOtwo by two or seven by seven? (flood)// TODOPatriarchsRefers to the 3 figures in Genesis: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.Ur of the ChaldeesWhere Abraham left to come to Canaan. (TODO check)Sodom and GomorrahCities that the scene of an episode in which God is going to destroy the cities, but Abraham convinces him not to after finding a minimum number of righteous people.Daughters of LotIncest -- both are impregnated by their father. Children end up being Moab and Ammon.Covenant (berit)Promise made by God that Abraham and his offspring are God's sole chosen people, and shall inhabit the promised land and receive God's protection in exchange for obedience. Central tenet of Jewish faith.CircumcisionReligious male circumcision is part of a rite of passage. Found in Gen 17. Represents covenant between God and Abraham.NaviHebrew word for prophet.AbrahamThe first of the three patriarchs of Israel. He married Sarah (or Sarai), who was barren. However, God makes a covenant with Abraham, promising him land and descendents as numerous as the stars. Abraham also receives instructions for the covenant of circumcision from God. Abraham has his first son, Ishmael, with Sarah's handmaiden, Hagar. Abraham eventually has a son with Sarah, Isaac, who is given birthright over Ishmael. God later instructs Abraham to sacrifice Isaac, but an angel stops him at the last minute, and is again promised numerous descendents. He lived 175 years, and his narrative is from Genesis 11:26-25-10 of the Hebrew BibleAkedah"Binding of Isaac" refers to the episode in Gen in which God ask Abraham to sacrifice Isaac, only to change his mind at the last second. A polemic against child sacrifice, or an etiological story explaining why the Israelites do not practice child sacrifice (unlike Canaanite neighbors).Child sacrificeMBS perspective on binding of Isaac: original story, Abraham really does sacrifice Isaac (attributed to J). Later editors insert an angel, stopping Abraham from actually killing his son (E). May reveal a change in cultural standards between original writing and later revision.the first born// TODOIsaacThe only son of Abraham and his wife Sarah, he is one of the 3 patriarchs of the Israelites (but the only one who name is never changed). He will become the father of Jacob and Esau. The most famous story associated with Isaac is "the binding of Isaac" in Gen. 22, where God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son, but is eventually stopped when an angel intercedes.IshmaelAbraham's first son, not of his wife Sarah but from his maid servant Hagar. God used descendants of Ishmael to save jewish nation.Jacobson of Isaac and Rebekah and twin-brother of Esau. 3rd Patriach, whose sons become 12 tribes. Stole the birthright and blessing of first-born Esau. Struggles with God throughout the Bible and show a dependency on God. Wrestles with a divine being who changes his name to Israel.Esauelder son of Isaac, lost his blessing in venison episode.Israelalso known as the Land of Canaan, is the territory promised to the Israelites in the Bible. Also the name given to Jacob after his fight with the angel.Eponymous ancestorOne who gives his name to a tribe or place; HB, Jacob's name changed to Israel, and his sons bore the names of Israel's tribes.JudahSon of Jacob, founder of the Israelite tribe of Judah. Betrayed his brother Joseph by selling him to the Egyptians.Joseph// TODOEphraim2nd son of Joseph born in Egypt before the arrival of the Israelites. Descended from him is Joshua who becomes leader of Israelites in conquest of Canaan.Menasseh1st son of Joseph, who was born in Egypt before the arrival of the Israelite; Jacob, Josephs' father, adopted Joseph's two son and blessed Ephraim over Menasseh.Leviaccording to book of Gen., Levi is the 3rd son of Jacob and Leah, and the founder of the Tribe of Levi, meaning priest.PotipharPharoah's chief steward, who buys Joseph as a slave when Joseph is sent to Egypt by slave traders. Puts Joseph in charge of his household and possessions and eventually sends him to prison after false claims of rape.Mrs. Potipharwife of Potiphar. Tries to seduce Joseph, and then falsely accuses him of raping her after he is disinterested.HyksosRuler of Egypt between 1660 and 1550, in command of Egypt during the Exodus of the Israelites. Means foreign rulers.Exodus (event)Flight of the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt through the Wilderness to the Promised Land. Led by Moses, who parts the Red Sea, to allow the Israelites to escape from the pursuing Pharaoh. No archaeological evidence Exodus ever occurred.Burning bushKnown at the location where God told Moses that he was to lead his people (the Israelites) out of Egypt into the promised land of Canaan. It is a powerful religious symbol of God's energy and power, as the bush, although on fire, was not comsumed by actual flames.MosesLed the exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt across the Red Sea after the 10 plagues. Moses received the 10 commandments from God on the top of Mt. Sinai.AaronThe older brother of Moses, prior to the exodus performed the ministerial role (speaks to Egyptian court), and like moses aides in bringing about the plagues. After the exile he becomes the first high priest, but leads the creation of the Golden Calf.Ten plaguesIn Exodus: 10 plagues inflicted on Egyptians to release the Israelites from slavery in Egypt. In every case, the plagues afflicted the Egyptians but not the Israelites. These culminated in the start of the Exodus journey for the Israelites. The 10 plagues are: blood, frogs, lice/gnats, flies/wild animals, pestilence, boils, hail, locusts, darkness, and death of the first born.Miriamsister of Moses and Aaron. When Pharaoh's daughter find Moses on the river, Offers to find a Hebrew woman to nurse the child, and this ends up being Moses's mother. Considered a prophetess and sang the victory song after Pharaoh's army drowns in the sea.Passover/Pesaha ritual performed by the Israelites to save their familities from one of the ten plagues sent by the Lord to punish Pharaoh; the Israelities were told to sacrifice a lamb or goat and then the use its blood to mark their doorway. Instructs the Lord to "passover" as he continued with the ritual slaughter of the Egyptian firstborns.MatzahUnleavened bread that has become an important symbol of Passover holiday. MBS trace the origin of Matzah to an agrarian festival of unknown origin and meaning, and claim that the eating of Matzah was later historicized by traditionalists as deriving from the Exodus story.ApotropaicRefers to the power of turn away evil or bad effects; to protect. In class it was mentioned in the discussion of the Pessah or passover sacrifice as the sacrificial blood of the lamb protected the Israelites from the destroyer. MBS and other scholars have also stated that one of the possible purposes of later animal sacrifices was for this reason. Also applicable to the scene in Exodus when an Angel appears to Moses threatening to take the life of his son because he is not circumcised; he is immediately circumcised and the Angel is unable to take his life.Pharaoh// TODODeath of the first born// TODOThe Destroyer// TODODid Israelites build the pyramids?// TODORevelation**Sinaiaccording to the book of Exodus, the mountain at which God gives the 10 commandments.Horebthe mountain in the book of Deuteronomy on which God gives the 10 commandments to Moses. It is designated as the Mountain of God in Exodus 3.Decalogue10 words/the 10 revelations --- brought down from Sinai, this set of laws is primarily concerned with ethics and monotheism. These laws are also emphasized to be set apart.Ten commandmentsGiven to Moses from God on Mt Horeb on 2 stone tablets. Embodies an ethical code for the Israelites.Jewish count: commandments613Covenant code (book of the covenan)Series of (mainly civil) laws following the decalogue that closely model (though Israelize) the laws of the ANE. Three things to remember: (1) God, not the king, legislates. (2) Only the perpetrator suffers for his crime, and s/he suffers commensurately. (3) Equality before the law in civil criminal matters.Casuistic LawInstructions in the form of "if...","then..." Many of the laws of the Pentateuch are of this form. From latin 'casus' (case) -- a law presenting a case.Apodictic Lawabsolute but general law (e.g. "you must not kill")TheophanyGreek for the "appearance of God;" in the Hebrew Bible, it refers to the manifestation of God to man (Adam and Eve, Cain, Noah and Sons, Abraham.HammurabiSixth King of the Babylonian empire (in the first dynasty) who came up with a code of 282 rules with variable punishments weighted by social status, following the idea of lex talionis. Similar to covenant codeLex talionisLatin term for law of retaliation. This includes the principle of an eye for an eye which says that a person who has injured another person is penalized to the same degree.Bronze serpentAlso known as Nehushtan, this was a sacred object in the form of a bronze serpent (surprise, surprise) to heal the Israelites' snake bit wounds. Or, at least, the Israelites who were willing to have it used on them.BalaamA non-Israelite "prophet" mentioned in the book of Numbers. Although he refused to curse the Israelites, he was reviled for sabotaging them as they entered the promise land by informing King Balak to allow them to curse themselves by providing prostitutes and unclean food. God sent a plague to them as a result.Dathan and AviramRebelled against Moses and Aaron in the Exodus and the Earth opened up and took themKorahTODOMoses striking the rockExodus 17:6 - a narrative in which God command Moses to strike the rock in order to make water flow out of it.Grumbling motifRecurring motif in Exodus of Israelites' discontent with God. Traditionalists could view this as Israelites' impatience with God, etc.Mannaan edible substance that God provided for the Israelites during their travels in the desert. It is described in the book of Exodus as being a "fine, flake-lik thing" similar to frost on the ground.CalebAn Israelite, he is one of the 12 spies sent by Moses into the land of Canaan, where he showed his loyalty to both God and Moses. Following this conquest, he asks for, and receives, a mountain property in the land of the Judah from Joshua.Golden CalfMade by Aaron in order to satisfy Moses' extended absence in Mount Sinai; however, when Moses saw this calf he was furious and burned it, ground it with water, and made them drink it. In his fury, Moses then commanded the Levites to "slay every man and his brother" (Exodus 32:26)Horned MosesThe Torah states that Moses' face came to radiate from his lengthythe spiesTODOTabernacleIn Hebrew it is mishkan = dwelling place, where God dwells or Tent or Tent of Meeting: central sanctuary. Temples in the ancient near eastern are regularly the "house" of the deity with a throne and/or footstool. God's presence in the Tabernacle represented by cloud/fire (Exodus 40:34-38). There is also the tension between the universality of God and localization in a building is evident in D/Dtr (who doesn't speak about the Tabernacle), but P does not acknowledge this tension. Kugel discusses how the tabernacle is analogous to the tent shrines in ANE, and that it is not clear whether it was imagined or real."Love your neighbor as yourself"traditionally attributed to Jesus, but first appeared in Leviticus 19:18 - the idea of being "holy""love the alien"TODODay of atonementAlso known as Yom Kippur. In Leviticus, it is written that this must be observed, and this is the Sabbath of Sabbaths. kpr - wiping clean, when people sin those sins accumulate slowly. It happens once a year and is a day of cleaning via sacrifice wipesSacrificial cultCult is defined by Professor Cohen as "that which we do to make God(s) happy and to follow the demands of God." For the Israelites, the sacrifical cult refers to the sacrifices of animals, usually in the tabernacle, in order to appease God. As following the documentary hypothesis, there are differences amongst the different sources of mostly how and where the sacrifices should be carried out.ScapegoatA mistranslation of the Hebrew term azazel, or the animal chosen by lottery on each Yom Kippur to be sent away into the desert. According to MBS, this ritual is part of P's vision of the Day of Atonement as an annual cleansing of the nation's levitical/ritual impurity that is inevitably accrued during the year. See Day of Atonement.LevitesMembers of the Israelite tribe of Levi. They are the only tribe to receive cities, but could not be landowners because "the Lord God of Israel Himself is their inheritance" (Deuteronomy 18:2). Because of this the tribes who received land were expected to tithe to the Levites. The Levites were given much of the religious duties for the Israelites (both Moses and Aaron were Levites). Many of their religious duties are outlined in Leviticus (the reason for the name of the book). Uncertainty about them because MBS say there seem to be two levels of Levites: the priests and the other Levites.PriestsA priest is a person who performs sacred rituals for a certain religion and is considered a mediator between humans and deities. They exist in religions such as Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism and many other religions. P thinks priests descend from priestly line of Aaron, while D believed that any Levite was a proper priest. Priests of the tribe of Levi are the only ones who can officiate in the Tabernacle.Profane / secular slaughterthe slaughter of an animal simply for consumption, not for sacrifice to God. This is accepted by the Deuteronomist, as long as blood is not consumed. P, on the other hand, requires all animal sacrifices/slaughter to occur on the altar (Lev 17).Ark of the covenantThe Ark of the Covenant, also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a chest described in the Book of Exodus as containing the Tablets of Stone on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed.Ritual impurityIn the Hebrew Bible these impurities are often bodily fluids, childbirth, animal sacrifice, death, skin disease, etc. They have nothing to do with sin. They are inevitable and transient- as long as one doesn't enter upon the sacred in an impure state, the impurity does not imperil the relationship of God to the people of Israelpure/clean animals, impure/unclean animals...HittitesTODOVassal treatyTODO...SuzerainTODO...Centralization of the cultTODO...PilgrimageTODO...King Josiahreformer who came after menasseh"the place in which God shall cause his name to dwell"TODO...DTODO...DtrTODO...621 BCETODO...