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Cellular Energetics ( chps 8 and 9)
Terms in this set (38)
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Molecule in cells that stores and releases chemical energy for use in body cells. The molecule is generated by the breaking down of glucose in Respiration.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
during cellular work ATP is converted into this; a bond is broken between one of the phosphate groups and releases energy allowing the cell to preform work
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or substances derived from them.
Organism that can capture energy from sunlight (or from chemicals in some cases) and use it to produce glucose.
Chemicals that absorb light energy and use it to carry out photosynthesis.
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy. Contain chlorophyll. Where the light dependent reactions occur.
A Stack of thylakoids
In plants, the solution that surrounds the thylakoids in a chloroplast. Where the light independent reaction occurs.
(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) electron carrier molecule; when carrying excited electrons it becomes NADPH. Transfers energy in photosynthesis.
light dependent reactions
Reactions that require light energy. Oxygen is released when water is "split" to provide hydrogen electrons which are used to form ATP and NADP
light independent reactions
Set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light; energy from ATP and NADPH is used with CO2 to build high-energy compounds such as sugar; also called the Calvin Cycle.
A waxy layer that covers the outer epidermal wall of plants, prevents water loss
palisade layer (mesophyll)
area of the leaf that contains elongated cells with chloroplasts spread over a large surface area.
Spongy layer (mesophyll)
a layer of loosely packed and irregularly shaped cells that fills the part of a leaf between the palisade layer and the lower epidermis. Allows for gases to get to and from the pallisade layer.
openings in epidermis to allow for gas exchange (oxygen and water vapor and and CO2 in plant leaves)
Specialized cells that control the opening and closing of stomata in response to changes in water pressure.
Nonliving vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals from the roots of a plant to its leaves
Is a vascular tissue. Transports sugars from leaves to storage tissues and other parts of the plant.
Photosynthetic process that alters the way in which carbon is fixed to better deal with the lack of CO2 that comes from the closing of the stomata in hot, dry regions. Examples: corn and sugar cane.
occurs in plants in very dry environments; the plants only open their stomata during the night; nights are cooler and water loss is reduced when stomata are open. Examples: pineapple and cactus
Amount of energy needed to raise temperature 1 gram of water 1 degree C
= 1000 calories
First step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid.
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
Aerobic cellular respiration (definition)
Oxygen is required. Breakdown of glucose and oxygen to release energy. Occurs in the mitochondria.
Describes a process that does not require oxygen
Aerobic Cellular Respiration (formula)
C6H12O6 + 6O2---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP
second stage of cellular respiration in which pyruvic avid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions. NADH and FADH2 are formed.
Electron transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Respiration that does not require oxygen. There are 2 types - lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic Fermentation.
An energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen.
Lactic acid Fermentation
The breaking down of glucose W/O oxygen to produce lactic acid and 2ATP. (Glucose ➡ lactic acid + 2ATP)
Converts Glucose --> ethyl alcohol + CO2+2ATP
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