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Biochemistry Exam 2
Terms in this set (55)
Amylopectin (in starch) contains primarily _________ glycosidic bonds with _________ glycosidic bonds as branch points.
What best describes an anomeric carbon?
Carbonyl carbon in a Fisher projection, carbon bonded to an "O" and "OH" in a Haworth projection
Which of the following is not a characteristic of carbohydrates in cells? A. They serve as energy stores in animals and plants. B. They are structural components of plant tissues. C. They play a role in cell-cell recognition. D. They are organic catalysts.
They are organic catalysts
Proteoglycans are a major component of cartilage and extracellular matrix. What property of proteoglycans is important for this role?
Their ability to hold large amounts of water
Starch and glycogen are
Homopolysaccharides of D-alpha-glucose and storage polysaccharides
If the product concentrations increase in a reaction, what will happen to ∆G and what does this say about the overall reaction?
∆G will increase and the reaction will become less favorable
Seven of the ten reactions of glycolysis have free energy values (ΔG near zero)? What does this tell us about these reactions?
They are near equilibrium reactions
A cell can make a reaction favorable by
Coupling to hydrolysis of ATP
What enzyme catalyzes the major regulatory step of glycolysis?
What class of enzymes use NAD as a cofactor in redox reactions?
Which of the following enzymes of glycolysis catalyzes a substrate level phosphorylation reaction?
DNA polymerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA. What does this tell us about the reaction?
It is an anabolic reaction and it likely involves the hydrolysis of ATP
This lipoprotein carries triglycerides and cholesterol absorbed from the digestive tract to the liver
Lipids always have a large region that is
In a typical cell membrane, sugars are attached to proteins and lipids on the
Outside of the membrane
A typical phospholipid consists of a saturated fatty acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, glycerol, a phosphate, and what else?
What is the energy storage molecule in plants?
(T/F) Cellulose is a structural molecule with many branches.
The glucose molecules in the chains of starch are connected by
Alpha(1-4) glycosidic bonds
The polysaccharide that is the major structural component of wood and grass is
Sucrose is made up of glucose and fructose linked by an alpha, beta 1-2 glycosidic bond. Why is the anomeric conformation of both glucose and fructose identified for sucrose, while in the examples such as amylose previously described, just the anomeric orientation of the first monosaccharide in the bond is identified?
Both glucose and fructose are binding via their anomeric carbons, so both anomeric orientations must be specified
For hyaluronic glycosaminoglycan (shown above), will the molecule be positively charged, negatively charged, or neutral at physiological pH?
Which of the following tissues would be the most likely to contain glycosaminoglycans? A. The gel-like vitreous humor of the eye B. Bone C. Nails
The gel-like vitreous humor of the eye
What type of sugar is the second of the two repeating monosaccharides in hyaluronic acid?
Which of the following is a correct pairing of terms?
Homopolysaccharide and chitin
Where can you find hyaluronic acid?
In the extracellular matrix
The process of adding an oligosaccharide to a protein is called
When an oligosaccharide is added to an arginine amino acid of a protein it is said to be
The HIV virus attaches to and enters cells by binding to what type of molecule?
What are glycosaminoglycans in terms of charge and branching properties?
Are negatively charged, large, unbranched polysaccharides
The glycosidic bonds linking glucose in cellulose are
What does it mean when a reversible reaction is at equilibrium?
The rates of the forward and reverse reactions are equal
The effect of a catalyst on equilibrium is to
Increase the rate at which equilibrium is achieved without changing the composition of the equilibrium mixture
If a forward reaction has a standard free energy change of -13.8 kJ/mol, what is the standard free energy change of the reverse reaction?
Calculate the ∆G°' for a reaction with a Keq = 0.003
If the product to reactant ratio is 19:1, will the ∆G°' be positive or negative?
(T/F) A reaction has a standard free energy change of -13.2 kJ/mol. This reaction is favorable and can occur under standard conditions.
The complete set of reactions carried out by an organism is called
What is the following reaction an example of?: Starch is broken down to glucose.
For the following statement, determine which description best describes the process: DNA is synthesized from free nucleotides.
Catabolic reactions result in the synthesis of molecules of _______ via cellular respiration. This is then used to power anabolic reactions.
(T/F) Metabolic pathways have one enzyme that catalyzes all the reactions in the pathway.
The oxidized form of NADH is
Which of the following molecules is in the most reduced state? A. Methane, B. Formaldehyde, C. Methanol, D. Formic acid, E. Carbon dioxide
The conversion of a carbohydrate into CO2 is a(n) _____ process; the conversion of CO2 into a carbohydrate is a(n) _____ process.
Which of the following is correct regarding metabolic pathways? A. All cells within a multi-cellular organism contain the same pathways. B. Anabolic pathways never occur at the same time as catabolic pathways. C. The activity of most pathways is not regulated. D. None of the above
None of the above
Why is dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) always converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) and not vice versa?
G3P is rapidly used in the reaction catalyzed by G3P-dehydrogenase, decreasing the product concentration for the DHAP -> G3P conversion.
The enzyme of glycolysis that catalyzes a redox reaction is
The enzymes that catalyze reactions in glycolysis but not in gluconeogenesis catalyze the _____________ reactions of glycolysis.
Looking at the bypass enzymes of gluconeogenesis, enzymes that REMOVE a phosphate from a molecule are usually called
Enzymes that catalyze reactions of both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis have a ∆G
Equal to zero
Name the enzymes, in the order they occur, that catalyze the three irreversible reactions of glycolysis.
Hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase
Enzymes that catalyze biological redox reactions are called
Name the three products of glycolysis.
ATP, NADH, pyruvate
Two molecules of _______ are the product of the investment phase of glycolysis.
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