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ANCC Prep, Research
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Research Issues From ANCC Prep Book, Page 12
Terms in this set (24)
Research utilization
Process of synthesizing, disseminating and using research-generated knowledge to make a change in practice; a subset of the broader evidence-based practice
Evidence-based practice
The integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values and needs
Two Models for reducing the gap between research findings and application to practice
Research utilization & evidence-based practice
Research utilization process
Critique research, synthesize findings, application of findings & measurement of outcomes
An evidence-based practice model that is a series of clinical questions that leads to change
PICO
PICO
Patient (population/problem); intervention, comparison (another treatment or therapy, placebo) and outcomes
Internal validity
When the independent variable (the treatment) caused a change in the dependent variable (the outcome)
External validity
When the sample is representative of the population and the results can be generalized.
Descriptive statistics
Describes the basic features of the data in the study;
Numerical values that summarize, organize, and describe observations of a study.
Descriptive statistics
Descriptive statistics can be generated by either
Quantitative or qualitative studies
What is the mean?
The average of scores
What is standard deviation?
Inidication of the possible deviations from the mean
What is variance?
How the values are dispersed around the mean; the larger the variance, the larger the dispersion of the scores
Numerical values that enable one to reach conclusions that extend beyond the data alone; generated by quantitative research designs
Inferential statistics
Assesses whether the means of two groups are statistically different from each others
t-test
Tests the difference among 3 or more groups
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Pearson's r correlation
Tests the relationship between 2 variables
Probability
Likelihood of an event occurring; lies between 0 and 1; an impossible event has a probability of 0, and a certain event has a probability of 1
p value
Also know as level of significance
Describes the probability of a particular results occurring by chance alone (if p=0.01, there is a 1% probability of obtaining a results by chance alone)
p value
Purpose of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
Risks are minimized; selection is equitable; adverse events are reports/risk-benefits are reevaluated; informed consent; data & safety monitoring plans.
Protects the rights and welfare of human research participants and has the authority to approve, require modifications or disapprove of any research activities.
IRBs
All investigators or individuals involved in research studies
Must take and pass a test on protection of human participants
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