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Exam 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (44)
Definition of rhetoric
The art of using language to help people narrow their choices among specifiable, if not specified, policy options.
A use of rhetoric to get something off the speaker's chest.
To get all of our attention, the rhetor must fill up our minds and distract us from all other thoughts. (A use of rhetoric)
To expand the audience's mindset by associating two things that previously weren't associated (ex: computer companies associate student success to computer access so parents will buy them). (A use of rhetoric)
A use of rhetoric to help identify a concept through a specific word; to give a label to something without a label.
A use of rhetoric that traditionally refers to giving the rhetor power.
A use of rhetoric that makes such good use of time that it almost seems lengthened.
The Rhetorical Act
A verbal construct that can be broken down into the rhetorical medium (sometimes called agency) and message.
The channel through which the message is given; spoken, written, digital, visual, etc.
The rhetor; the person who delivers the message.
Contextual situation of the rhetoric; the particular time, place, etc.
The most distinctive feature of rhetoric; this shapes the discourse and determines truth.
Informational Strategy: Clarifying a term or concept that is vague or troublesome; may also be used to introduce a new or unexpected way of looking at the topic (defining what "affirmative action" really means because many people don't actually know but are biased).
Journalism in the oral mode; answers the question "What happened?" in strict chronological order (usually) with little to no analysis.
Painting a picture in the audience's mind with words, similar to a descriptive novel passage.
Goes beyond reporting/defining to consider how/why it happened or to speculate about what it means/implies.
When an audience needs to see/do something for themselves, the rhetor will show them.
Seeks to clarify for listeners the similarities/differences between items being discussed.
Important to the Speaker
It's hard to make a good speech, or even an interesting one if the rhetor doesn't care. A good speech, therefore, must be ______.
Interest to the Audience
A good speech must have some ________ by either providing information they can use or offering a solution to a problem they have.
Worthy of Listener's Time
A topic can't seem frivolous or irrelevant to the audience, or they'll feel like the rhetor wasted their time. Therefore, the topic must be ______.
Appropriateness of Scope
A speaker must cover the topic to an appropriate degree with the time available; this is called ______.
Appropriateness for Oral Delivery
_____ should be considered when speaking; sometimes a topic can be developed better in another medium rather than a speech.
Appropriateness for the Rhetorical Situation
Because the context of every speech is different, one must consider _____. For example, a humorous speech most likely won't be appropriate at a funeral.
A good speech must be well-connected and refined so that it is understandable and accessible to the whole audience.
Conduct a Personal Inventory
A way to find a good speech topic is to ask yourself what public issues you care about, what personal experiences might be generalizable (therefore usable in a speech), and which interests may overlap with the audience.
Another way to find a good speech is to write down words or phrases that come to your mind when presented with a certain category or topic.
Narrow the Topic
The final step in choosing a speech topic; whittling down the original idea to be sure that it can fit appropriately in the time slot.
Using your own experiences to support your thesis.
Using overarching societal beliefs/truths/facts to support your thesis.
Making a general statement more meaningful by illustrating a specific instance of it; makes an abstract idea more concrete. (Brief example, hypothetical example, anecdote, case study).
Primary sources that can establish a claim directly without the need for speculation or interpretation; very useful for supporting a thesis.
Supporting materials using quantitative form (may be simple enumeration or experiments).
Information/opinion expressed by someone other than the speaker to support your thesis.
An organizational pattern that uses units of time as they pass as the main ideas.
An organizational pattern based on place/position (talking about an individual, then their state, then their nation).
Organizational pattern in which each main idea you analyzed in researching your topic becomes a major discussion point.
Organizational pattern that can go in two ways: identifying effects and then examining their causes, or identifying causes and then examining their effects.
A variation of the cause-effect organizational pattern that focuses on problems and their solutions.
Comparison and Contrast
An organizational pattern that explains a topic by demonstrating its similarities to and differences from a concept that is similar to the audience.
An organizational pattern that arranges the speech by the process of elimination; works well when there are a finite # of possibilities, none of which are desirable.
The Purpose(s) of an Introduction
Gaining the Interest/Attention of your audience; influencing the audience to view you/your topic favorably; clarifying the purpose of your speech; previewing the development of your topic(s).
Purpose(s) of a Conlusion
Signal the end is coming; recap the ideas; make a final appeal
Characteristics of an Effective Speech
Delivery seems natural/uncontrived; helps the audience to listen/understand; builds empathy between the rhetor/audience
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