How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Linguistics Final

STUDY
PLAY
imitation
Example:
Adult: He's going out
Child: He go out
imitation
what children hear is not reciprocated in what they say
Recast
the repetition of correction of a child's utterances
Recast
Adults provide the correct model by correcting child
Recast
Ex.
Child: it fall
Adult: it fell?
Analogy
When a child hears a sentence and uses it as a model to form other sentences
analogy
Ex
Heard: I painted a red barn
Spoken: I painted a blue barn
connectionalism
relies in part on behaviorist learning principles such as analogy and reinforcement
connectionalism
no grammatical rules are stored anywhere
connecitonalism
Ex
Play-played
dance-danced
drink-drank
connectionalism
repeated exposure to verb pairs in the input reinforces the connection between them
connectionalism
mimicking rule-like behavior
innateness hypothesis
children are equipped with an innate sense for language
innateness hypothesis
Universal grammar, provides children with a head start
innateness hypothesis
child extracts grammar rules from environment, such as word order and movement rules
stages of language acquisition
babbling, one word stage, two word stage
babbling
early stage- repeated consonant sequences, mama, baba, dada
babbling
12 most frequent consonants in the world's language make up 95% of consonants used in babbling
babbling
after the early stages, only sounds in the target language are used
first words
children realize words are related to meanings
first words
uttereances that contain one word are holophrasic of "whole phrase" because 1 word conveys a more complex message
overgeneralization
applying grammar rules in areas they don't apply ("I writed a story"; goed; comed)
overgeneralization
shows that children have acquired the regular rules but hasn't yet learned the there ar exceptions
overgeneralization
child mixes regular and irregular rules, then figures out irregular rules an applies them
foot foots > foot feet
brought broughted > brought went
two word stage
nomination, notice, recurrence, nonexistence, attribute, possessive, locative, agent , action
nomination
consists of "that" plus a noun, that book
two word stage
notice
hi plus noun, hi book
two word stage
recurrence
more plus noun, more mile
two word stage
nonexistence
all gone/no more plus noun, no more juice
two word stage
attribute
adj plus noun, big train
two word stage
possessive
noun plus noun, mommy lunch
two word stage
locative
noun plus noun, sweater chair
two word stage
locative
verb plus noun, walk street
two word stage
agent
action noun plus verb, Eve read
two word stage
action
object verb plus noun, put book
two word stage
over-regulation
- when learning language, children over-apply rules. - they begin to over apply the rules in language so they begin to make mistakes ex. both my foots hurt.
over-regulation
shows that language acquisition isn't completely from imitation, seeing ass over-regulation is used even when children aren't exposed to bad english
over-regulation
children treat irregular verbs as and nouns as if they were regular
sociolinguistics
the study of linguistics in society
sociolinguistics
concerned with how language variation is correlated with social organization
dialect
variety of language that is mutuallyintelligible
regional dialect
dialect spoken in specific area, brooklyn, boston, texas
standard dialect
considered the norm, implicitly accepted and expect, model from news broadcast
standard dialect
used in teaching, books, speaking to someone of authority
lingua fanca
a language common to speakers of diverse languages that can be used for communication and commerce
pidgin
a contact language that blends elements of at least two languages and that emerges when people with different languages need to communicate
creole
a language that begins as a pidgin and eventually becomes that native language of a speech community
speech registers
styles of speech that are appropriate for different context
speech registers
depends on on the context you are in
comparative linguistics
deals with how language changes
the great vowel shift
A set of regular sound changes affecting the long (tense) vowels of English that took place around the 15th century. Changes account for many of the discrepencies between the pronunciation of English words and their spelling (established before GVS took place)
comparative reconstruction
the creation of the original form of an ancestor language on the basis of comparable forms in languages that are descendants.
proto-language
a reconstructed pre-historic language that is the ancestor to historic languages
cognates
Words that look similar and have the same origin in two languages.
regular sound correspondence
u: and au
house
grimm's law
a sound shift that took place in all the Germanic languages, distinguishing them from the other non-Germanic Indo-European languages
endangered language
the language has hope, but within the next century may not by learned by children anymore. is being learned now but probably won't later
language death
extinction of a language due to extermination of speakers or language shift
[z]
after voiced
[s]
after voiceless
add [s]
for 3rd person verb "he giggles"
contractable copula
fred's cold
uncontractable copula
who's cold? fred is.
contractable auxiliary
fred's running
uncontractable auxiliary
who's running? fred is.
deletion
/f:/ is now /f/
addition
there was no /v/ in olde English
changing of sounds
/x/ became /k/
elk