Lead by: William Morris
Inspired by: John Ruskin's Writings
Stands for: Simple form, traditional craftsmanship, using styles of medieval, romantic, and folk decoration. Anti-industrial: advocating economic and social reform
At it's core, a reform movement dignifying the labor of the individual and the progressivism of communal projects of social improvement
Emphasized the beauty of humble materials and also introduced the notion that middle class ladies and gents could earn money as designers of furniture and textiles without jeopardizing their social standing.
It revolted against the turning out of poorly manufactured goods and provides visual contrast to both the excess of earlier styles and the spare, minimalist forms that were to color
Focus on hand labor and nature as sources of inspiration
Against industrialization, to push decorative arts, emphasize handcraft, simple, honest use of materials,
Boutique (1901) - jewelry design, popular at world's fair, profusion of organic form, animal forms, harmonious formal arrangement, offset with blank surfaces, curve - associated with modern 1900 = MOTIF (motion, dynamism, parallel
with film) - Loie Fuller on film (dancer) - curves inform novel design > progressive (associated with art nouveau
• Jewelry design shown at worlds fair
• Sculptural element, space around it
• Treated to same formal harmonious form
• Humble design to humble materials
o Curves- modern motif, suggests motion
• Fuller on film
Stands for: Art should be a way of life, embracing all facets of art and design. Sought to harmonize its forms together and with nature (sunflower)
Aesthetics: Curved lines, graphic patterned surfaces, contrasting voids, and flatness of visual planes. Curves are very important, term "whiplash" refers to this, syncopated rhythm of flowing lines, found throughout architecture, painting, sculpture, and other forms of "New Art" design.
First major movement to mass produce graphics. 2D pieces were printed in popular forms such as ads, posters, labels, and magazine.
Art Nouveau Ceramics (in particular) were influenced greatly by Japanese styles... This is where "L'Art Nouveau Bing Pavilion" comes into play.
transition from arts and crafts to modern, natural forms, wavy lines, whiplash motif, nature, used machines
Organic forms, movement, looked for something new and different to furnish houses, destroy distinction between fine and applied arts
Influence of Japanese art and aesthetics, flat patterning, no perspective
Art neuvo did not stay because...pretended to be international, used rich materials too borquios, not easy to mass produce
- He was a painter, Well known for work in glass, exotic
-Pushing boundaries to improve upon nature, art is superior to nature, nature is true beauty
- Aquamarine lily vase, Green transparent glass
-Introduces technology to the movement, technology he develops, Favrile, hand brought
-Etched Metal and Glass Desk set 1898, letter writing as communication
Engaged the user in a mechanical way, like the technologies
Evoking the ideas that profusion of wires, invasive during the time
Hand desk, not showing handmade, but more like machine
"Total Work of Art"-- German word, first coined in mid 19th century.
-Strives to make use of many or all art forms, total artistic synthesis.
-IN ARCHITECTURE: Architect is responsible for design and or overseeing of the buildings totality. (shell, landscape, furnishings, accessories).
-Believed to be born from social theories of the fear of the rise of industrialism.
-Parallel in other movements: Modern approach of concept, born out of Bauhaus School which contended that artists/designers/architects should be multifaceted and have experience in many different artistic mediums and fields. Gropius (who established the school), however, didn't necessarily believe every aspect of a building needed to be product of one hand.
- A German term for art that is universal and embraces all art forms
-All inclusive art spaces typically based in interiors such as Robie House in which all aspects of an area are equally designed including building itself, furniture, etc
-Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the aeroplane and the industrial city.
-futurists [ like Dadaists] compositions south to redefine the reading experience with the intention of "wakin up"the audience to a more critical reading of text, while sometimes loosely "illustrating" the subject matter of the text through the manipulations of purely typographic form
- the focused on breaking the socially determined structure and rules of verbal language
· Speed, technology: people thought of shocking, explosive and emotionally charged poetry, emotionally charged graphic design
o Confusion, noise, chaos of battle
o Radically different from swiss style/international type
- No order, total embrace of chaos
- Non linear composition
- Collaging different words together
-for the futurists, the modern experience was also a technological one, a universality of the machine and function.
-typographic form captured mechanical repetition
Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917 in netherlands
harmony that could be revealed only through abstract geometric style - lack of hierarchy, equality
-the visual language of the destijl movement: geometric forms, primary colors, straight lines, and right andels. such forms were considered universal with the power to bring harmony to life through their visual purity. [p.152]
-.Pg. 151 Typeface, modular, harmonious font
positive/negative space, elemental colors
-de stijl artists, desingers and architects, explored a visual language reduced to its most essentail compnenets, consisting of straight lines, right angles, and primary colors [p.151]
-unlike the dad
-the goal of these artists was to create a new way of living, a social outcome thrrough physical form
-the aim to "purify" the vocab and grammar of the arts, go to the very basics
Movement: De Stijl
-the obvious is seen here, primary colors, straight lines, right angles, balance, block colors, vertical and horizontal shapes,
-the idea of utopia and univesalism was tihnking of creating a new person, so in this space, the way the person moved through this space would create a new person
-the house was universal because, as you walk through it it takes away individual subjectivity
-the failure is that from a users point of view it was cold and not comfortable
-American modernism is an artistic and cultural movement in the United States starting at the turn of the 20th century with its core period between World War I and World War II and continuing into the 21st century
-assumed that meaning could be imposed on text and images by the author or designer, expressed through a tight system of visual theme and variation, the compositions offered ambiguous and pluralistic meaning
-responded to new economic, social and political conditions and the growth of industrialization, mostely in western countries. modernists idea can be traced to the enlightenment and "age of reason" marked by the rejection superstition and religion as dominant forces in culture.
- ideas started in Europe but quickly spread to north America where they took on a more pragmatic, less philosophical approach to style through the mechanism of advertising. across the 20th cen, ideas that started as evidence of rebellion and discontent within the european avant-garde, became part of the cultural mainstream losing some of their socializing function
-asymmertical compositions, mechanically produced imagrey, white space, and cohesive typographic systems to their work for gov't and indusrty [p168]
'real materials, real space' - construct works that feel modern, integrate art
into real life, remove art from privileged position, shed material desires
failed attempt to unite people into collective
abstraction cannot communicate to public
a. The two movements [Russian
Constructivism and Bauhaaus] interfaced when a Russian national, Kandinsky, was appointed to Bauhaus, and when El Lissitsky, a Russian Constructivist, traveled to Weimar Germany in 1922 and met many members of Bauhaus.
• propaganda board "the factory workbenches..."
o last attempt of abstraction to have the ability to communicate to the pubic
o not sufficient to create culture
o realized he failed address to use abstraction to communicate to the public so he shifts how to produce propaganda, so he does large photo installations
Modernism refers to a time period (mid-nineteenth century to mid-twenieth century), and a set of cultural tendencies. High Modernism, our concern in this module, refers to an artistic movement from the mid-twentieth century; it is characterized by an experimentation with form, a tendency toward abstraction, and an emphasis on innovation, technological and industrial progress, and rejection of the past.
b. In architecture, Modernism meant, among other things, the rejection of ornament and a new emphasis on materials, function, and simplicity of form. In graphic design, Modernism led to the elimination of opulent typefaces, and generated a new concern with grids, white space, and asymmetrical layout.
From: Module: What is Design?
-creativity is something that everyone want, businesses, corporations, cities, individuals.
-the idea of "creativity" started in Europe, which deemed its people as the most creative race at the time
-as time went on creativity was seen as a destruction to social order
-during the 40s, 50s,60s movements started by youth called for acceptance of creativity once again
-now, creative jobs are hard to keep, let alone get, because you need years of experiences and "artists" usually need a second job to keep surviving
-creativity that is for changing the world is doable in capitalism, but individualistic creativity for personal growth is nearly impossible in capitalism
From: Module: Craft
-art nouveau, during the 1880s and 1890s was a time were people were beginning to feel comfortable with "looking up" but that was not enough ex. the Eiffel tower, air balloons, anything to get up into the air and stay up there
-designers studied how birds flew with such lightness and the study of aerodynamics and wind resistance brought the idea of streamlining
-talks a lot about the studies done on air resistance and mentions that the eiffel tower was a symbol of modern age because it was a aerodynamic experiment
-1897 was when the curved wing shape of confirmed of being most effective
-talks about how art nouveau fell into the pattern of ascension-descension (almost a tear drop shape)
-art nouveau artists were also fascinated with the movement of water and the way it moved, much like cigarette smoke in air
-wings, images of flight, winged objects were popular in art nouvea
-art nouveau artists found that wings and images of flight, as well as new stylistic means of rendering them could represent, new age, exhilaration, conquest, optimist, the future.
Module: Streamlining and Modernism and Architecture
-podcast on itunes
-major architectural influence in 20th cen
-returned again and again to the idea of landscape
-he designed a house for his parents in 1912, was created on a slope overlooking the city through a wide window, boursquaise environment is kept inside the house, he designed everything inside including furniture
-1925, he gave a plan to redo central paris, complete transformation of medieval buildings to modern, the vertical city would have glass sky scrapes. he was an instant sensation through this though it was never built it influenced other cities
-early 1950s he built a cabin for him and his wife, wooden sleeping benches, simple seats, an interior meant to be looking towards the sea,
-his pilgrimage church- a building in which may pervious ideas are integrated, shapes from roman graves, from organic shapes, a response to the hill landscape its built on where it plays with color and light,
-he saw himself as a painter and an architect, 1918- the fireplace, his first oil painting, a white cube inspiration from athens (which apprears in his other works) on books over fireplace,
-1932- revision of an african city, paints and observes the people and landscape that are seen in inspirations for the city design
-1946- united nations headquarters co-designer but believed that his ideas were being compromised, he wanted a series of buildings,
-1931 in France on Mediterranean coast, one of the main features is the open porch, "the outdoors in also indoors" it is a response to critics that say that he isnt being sensitive to landscape,
-1945- french gov commissioned him to build a residential building, sleek, light filled,