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History Chapter 17

Terms in this set (42)

the right for (women) to vote.
Women suffrage faced opposition/disagreement:
o liquor industry feared women would vote in support of prohibition
o textile industry was worried women would vote for the restriction of child labor
o men simply feared the changing role of women in society
A 3-Part Strategy for Suffrage:
- convince state legislatures to given women right to vote
- test 14th amendment - states lose representation if deny men vote
- attempted to vote in 150 occasions and different states and DC and in 1875 the Supreme Court ruled that women were citizens but denied that this gave them the automatic right to vote
- push for constitutional amendments to give women the right to vote.
suffragist (women's votes) leaders tried 3 approaches to achieve their objective
1) tried to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote - achieved victory in territory of Whyoming in 1869 and by 1890s Utah, Colorado, and Idaho also granted voting rights to women. 1896 - efforts in other states failed.
2) Women pursued court cases to test the 14th amendment (declared that states denying their male citizens the right to vote would lose congressional representation). We women citizens too? Susan B. Anthony and other women tested that they were citizens too by attempting to vote at least 150 times in 10 states and the District of Columbia (D.C.) 1875 - Supreme Court rules that women were citizens - but then denied that citizenship automatically conferred the right to vote.
3) Women pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the vote. Stanton succeeded in have the amendment introduced in California, but was killed later. For the next 41 years, women pushed to have it reintroduced, only to see it continuously voted down.

Before the turn of the century - campaign of women suffrage only achieved modest/little success
later women's reform efforts paid off in improvements in the treatment of workers and in safer food and drug products - which President Theodore Roosevelt supported along with is own plans for reforming business, labor, and the environment.
President of the United States after Roosevelt
- secretary of war handpicked by Roosevelt.
- Ran against William Jennings Bryan in election of 1908 who was nominated for the democrats for the 3rd time
- Republican. Won easily
- "vote for ___ this time, you can vote for Bryan any time"
- hesitant approach to progressive reform leads to a split in the Republican Party and the loss of the presidency to the Democrats
Taft Stumbles:
• In 1908, Republican William Taft wins with Roosevelt's support
• Has cautiously progressive agenda; get little credit for success
• Does not use presidential bully pulpit to around public opinion.
- As president Taft pursued a cautiously progressive agenda, seeking to consolidate rather than expand Roosevelt's reforms.
- He received little credit for his accomplishments.
- His legal victories - like busting 90 trusts in a 4-year term - did not boost his popularity.
- He told Roosevelt that he never felt like he was actually president
- He was very cautious and hesitated to use the presidential bully pulpit (to push an agenda) to arouse public opinion.
- He could not subdue/calm troublesome members of his own party
- Tariffs and conservation were his first problems.
- Signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff
- campaigned on a platform of lowering tariffs - principle to progressive agenda
- The House passed Payne's Bill (lowered rates on imported manufactured goods) while the Senate proposed an alternative bill Aldrich Bill (made fewer cuts and increased many rates).
- There were cries of betrayal from the progressive wing of his party so Taft signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff - compromise that only moderated the high rates of the Aldrich Bill.
- ^angered progressives who though Taft abandoned progressivism
- Taft made matters worse when he clumsily attempted to defend the tariff calling it "the best (tariff) bill the Republican party ever passed."
- Ballinger disapproved of conservationist control on western lands and removed 1 million acres of forest and mining lands from the reserved list and returned it to public domain
- ^^ President Taft sided with Ballinger and fired Pinchot from the U.S. Forest Service.
Taft was too cautious to be able to keep the 2 parts of the Republican Party together:
- Progressives who sought change
- Conservatives who did not
• They split under Taft's support of the political boss Joseph Cannon - House Speaker of Illinois, rough-talking, tobacco-chewing politician, "Uncle Joe", often disregarded seniority in filling committee slots (Cannon weakens progressive agenda; progressives ally with Democrats)
- *Voters voiced concern over the rising cost of living (blamed on the Payne-Aldrich Tariff). Voters also believed Taft to be against conservation.
- 1912 - Roosevelt ran for a 3rd term as president - primary election the Republicans wanted him but Taft has the advantage bc he was incumbent (present holder of office)
- At the Republican convention Taft's supporters maneuvered to replace Roosevelt's delegates with Taft delegates in a number of delegations.
- Split between Taft and Roosevelt (former Republican allies) turned nasty during the fall campaign:
o Taft called Roosevelt a "dangerous egotist/showoff"
o Roosevelt called Taft a "fathead" with the brain of a "guinea pig"
o Wilson distanced himself from them. "Don't interfere when your enemy is destroying himself."
- Voting choices:
o Wilson's New Freedom
o Taft's conservatism
o Roosevelt's progressivism
o Social Party policies of Eugene V. Debs
- 3rd party candidate Roosevelt defeated Taft in the popular and electoral votes.
(look at 17.5)
- 1912 election Democrat candidate was a reform governor of NJ
- Wilson's new Freedom
- Woodrow Wilson establishes a strong reform agenda as a progressive leader
Wilson's Background:
- Wilsons was lawyer, professor, president of Princeton, NJ governor
- As president, focuses on the time happening then - trusts, tariffs, high finance
wins financial support:
- Claimed progressive ideals (like Roosevelt) but had a different idea for the federal government - believed in attacking large concentrations of power to give greater freedom to the average citizen.
- He had a prejudice southern background though - so he did not use his federal power to fight off attacks directed at African Americans (Son, grandson, and nephew of Presbyterian ministers. Worked as a lawyer, history professor, and president of Princeton University (then real President)).
- 1910 - gov of NJ - supported progressive legislation programs like direct primary, worker's compensation, and regulation of public utilities and railroads.
- As president he enacted his program "New Freedom" and attacked the 'triple wall of privileges' - trust, tariffs, and high finance
New tax system:
• Wilson pushes for Underwood Act to substantially reduce tariffs
• Sets precedent of giving State of the Union message in person
• His use of bully pulpit leads to passage.
- Effort to curb power of big business - Wilson worked to lower tariff rates (knowing big business didn't allow reduction under Taft)
- Underwood Act - reduce tariff rates for first time since the Civil War.
o Summoned congress to session to plead his case and established a percent of delivering the state of the union message in person.
- Businesses lobbied too - looking to block tariff reductions
- Manufacturing lobbyists (ppl hired by manufacturers to present their case to gov officials) descended on the capital to urge senators to vote no - passage seemed unlikely.
- Wilson denounced lobbyists and urged voters to monitor their sentatos' votes
- Bully pulpit - senate votes to cut tariff rates even deeper than the House has
Limits of progressivism:
- Wilson disappointed Progressives who favored social reforms - especially on racial matters - conservative Southern Democratic voters but disappointed the northern white and black supporters
- Wilson put segregationists in charge of federal agencies so they expanded racial segregation in the fed gov, military, and Washington D.C.
Wilson and civil rights:
• As candidate, wins support of NAACP for favoring civil rights
• As president, opposes anti-lynching legislation.
o Why?
• Appoints fellow white southerners to cabinet who extend segregation
• NAACP feels betrayed; Wilson self-defense widens rift
• Why was President Wilson? so hesitant with giving women's the right to vote? The start of WWI, not completely educated on the cause and not concerned about educating himself on the cause, men were dominant in society and he is afraid to go against these men.
• What changed his mind? The treatment of women while protesting and in prison.

- Retreated on civil rights once in office (like Roosevelt and taft)
- 1912 - campaign - won support of NAACP's black intellectuals and white liberals by promising to treat blacks equally and to speak against lynching
- As pres, Wilson opposed federal antilyniching legislation, arguing these crimes were under state jurisdiction
- Capital and federal offices In DC - desegregated during Reconstruction - resumed practice of segregation after Wilson's election
- Wilson's cabinet - fellow Southern white ppl who extended segregation
- Secretary of Navy = Josephus Daniels - cabinet meeting to do away with drinking fountains and towels in his department. According to his diary Wilson agrees bc he made no promises to Negros except to do them justice. Segregated facilities = just
- African Americans and NAACP white supporters felt betrayed
- Oswald Garrison Villard - grandson of abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison - wrote to Wilson in dismay - "colored people voted for you in belief that their status as American citizen was safe in your hands are deeply cast down" Wilson replies that he "with the approval of some most influential negroes he knows"
- Widened gap between president and some of his supported
- 1914 - president reception of African American delegation brought a bigger climax
- William Monroe Trotter - editor in chief of Guardian (AA Boston newspaper) led to delegation - complained that AA from 38 states has asked the president to reverse the segregation of gov employees but segregation increased since them.
- Wilson found trotter's tone infuriating - Wilson demanded that the delegation leave. His refusal to extend civil rights to AA pointed to the limits of progressivism under his administration.
- America's involvement in the war raging in Europe revealed other weaknesses
- Wilson found that the outbreak of WWI in Europe in 1914 demanded America's involvement even though he said in 1913 "there's no chance of progress and reform in an administration in which war plays a principle part."
- Distracted Americans and their legislators allowed reform efforts to stall