Phase Shift
amount of lead or lag in one wave with respect to another
the beginning of a sound or the initial transient of a musical note
Frequency Response Curve
a graphic representation of the effect that a device, such as a microphone or speaker, will have on the tone of an instrument
the relative position of two sound waves with respect to one another, usually measured in degrees
Threshold of Feeling
the SPL that will cause discomfort in a listener 50% of the time (about 118dB SPL between 200-10kHz)
the actual distance in the medium between the beginning and the end of a cycle
describes the tonal quality of any sound, and is based on the relative mix of the fundamental and harmonic frequencies
the rate at which an acoustic generator, electrical signal, or vibrating mass repeats a cycle of positive and negative amplitude
the time it takes for a sound to fade below the threshold of hearing
the distance above or below the centerline of a waveform
Peak Amplitude
the positive and negative maximums of a waveform
Threshold of Pain
the SPL that causes pain in a listener 50% of the time (140dB SPL between 200-10kHz)
Harmonic Distortion
the production of waveform harmonics that do not exist in the original signal
Hz, the number of cycles that occur over a period of one second
Fletcher-Munson Curves
also known as equal loudness curves, a graph that indicates the average ear sensitivity to different frequencies at different volume levels (SPL)
waves that are continuous and repetitive, and symmetrical about the centerline
multiples of the fundamental that give an instrument its characteristic sound
two tones that differ only slightly in frequency and have approximately the same amplitude
an abrupt increase in signal level. In music, the result of a percussive or plucked instrument sucha s a drum head being struck or a guitar being plucked
Internal Dynamics
volume increases, decreases, and sustain after the attack of a musical note
the pressure of sound vibration or energy measured at a specific distance from the source
Threshold of Hearing
the minimum sound pressure that produces the phenomenon of hearing in most people
the phenomenon by which loud signals prevent the ear from hearing softer sounds. The greatest masking effect occurs when the frequency of the sound and the frequency of the masking noise are close to each other
Reflected Sound
sound waves that bounce off surrounding surfaces before reaching the listener's ear
the basic pitch of a musical tone
Decibal (dB)
the unit of measurement by which the relative volumes of sound are compared
waves that do not repeat and which are not symmetrical about the centerline
the level of the "held" or lingering part of a note
the interval between two frequencies having a ratio of 2:1
Direct Sound
a sound wave that travels a straight line and arrives at the listener's ear before hitting any other surface
Explain Timbre
describes tonal quality of sound, based on the relative mix of the fundamentals and harmonics of an instrument
Use timbre to describe why a viola and violin producing the same musical note, sound different from one another
size and structure of instrument produces different mix of fundamentals and harmonics
Describe the basic process of magnetic tape recording and playback
Magnetic domains of random polarity are patterned by record-head. The pattern is then reproduced by the playback head
Describe how an erase head works
a high frequency, high intensity sine wave is fed to the tape, which saturates the tape and destroys any magnetic tape pattern recorded on the tape
Describe head placement on a professional ATR headstack
Erase Head--->Record Head---->Playback
Explain Bias
Biassing corrects for tape's non linearity in recording magnetic energy and retaining it by applying bias current. This is done by injecting an inaudible (75-150k) tone into the signal, which increases overall flux
Explain equalization as it applies to analog tape recording
Achieve a flat frequency response by EQ'ing with non linear magnetic tape 6dB per octave in the playback (low-end)
aligns the head position relative to the width of the tape
aligns head position relative to tilt the head in the plane parallel to the tape
aligns the head position relative to the tilt of the head toward or away from tape
aligns head position relative to the angle at which the tape bends around the head
aligns head position relative to the pressure of the tape against the head
Antistatic Carbon Backing
prevents print through
Polyester (PVC) Base
holds magnetic domains
Magnetic Oxide
collection of domains where the recording happens
holds magnetic oxide in place
Why is it important to demagnitize heads and metal parts?
To remove patterns
Explain Print Through
the transfer of recorded signal from one layer of tape to an adjacent by means of magnetic domain induction
How can you reduce print-through?
Anti Static carbon backing or store tales out
Why do we store tails out?
reduce print through
Why is a wider track width better that a narrower track width?
Less crosstalk, More Accurate
What effects does tape speed have on the performance of an analog tape recorder
More Accurate, noise, distortion, crosstalk, flutter
The Engineer
A. Technically implements the Producer's vision
B. Builds the mix
C. Directs the 2nd engineer
The 2nd Engineer
A. Supports the engineer, producer, and artist
B. Is responsible for all documentation
C. Set-up, tear-down, and cleaning the studio after session
Split buss/ split section
A console that has monitor controls in a section of the consoles separate from the channel fader strips
Phase invert
A switch that inverts the phase on a channel's input
Pan Pot
Control that places the output of a channel in the stereo field
Direct out switch
Where signal is sent directly out of a channel
Identifies when an input has reached overload
Pre fader
Signal sent or monitored regardless of channel fader position
Defeats the output of a channel
Reduces the input level of a signal before the mic preamp
A gain control that changes the input sensitivities of a preamp
Phantom Power
Provides 48 volts DC to condenser microphones
Mic Preamp
Amplifies to increase mic voltage to line level
Channel Assignment
A mixing network that combines the outputs of multiple channels
Cue Send
A signal path specifically dedicated to sending signal to headphones
In Line
A console that has the monitor and input controls in the same fader strip