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the area embracing Central America and southern and central Mexico, "Middle America" the region extending from modern-day Mexico through Central America


a period when the hunting and gathering lifestyle gave way to permanent settlements and the tending of plants and animals.


an ancient land bridge over which the earliest Americans are believed to have migrated from Asia into the Americas

Tierra del Fuego

Southern Tip of Conintent


of or pertaining to American Indians or their culture or languages; The first wave of Asians that migrated to America probably spoke this language

Christopher Columbus

Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China; left Spain in 1942.

Clovis Tip

A superior spear point developed before 9000 B.C. It was in use nearly everywhere in North and South America and produced such an improvement in hunting ability that it contributed to overhunting.


First Europeans to reach North America


near the sea; concerning with shipping or navigation

Staple Crop

crops grown for commercial sale, usually produced in a colonial area and sold in europe.

Atlantic Slave Trade

Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the MIddle Passage of the Triangular Trade.


a class of lower nobles in Spain

Hernan Cortes

Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)


(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.


capital city of Aztec that they believe god told them to find.


a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s


a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy, a member of an

Declaration of Independence

John Locke's ideas regarding natural rights and the purpose of government are echoed in this U.S. document;, the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain


A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it


feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions, Lords in Eastern Europe revived serfdom to combat increasing economic challenges. Lords demanded that kings and princes issue laws restricting or eliminating peasants' right of moving freely


a Protestant who is a follower of Anglicanism, Relating to the Church of England, run by Queen Elizabeth I.


Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.


the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power


French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.


A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).


English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania


This is another name for the Puritans who arrived in New England in 1629 due to oppression and persecution by the English crown. While in England, these Puritans believed they must remain within the Church of England to reform it.


People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.

Sir Walter Ralegh

Elizabethan courtier who, in the 1580's, tried but failed to establishe an English colony on Roanoke Island in what is now North Carolina.


first permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay

Captain James Smith

led the Jamestown colony; When his explorations uncovered neither gold nor silver, he concentrated on survival by trying to establish friendly relations with the Indians.

Joint-stock company

A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.

indentured servants

People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.

propietary colonies

colonies owned by persons who had been given a royal charter to own land

bicameral legislature

a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts


Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.

Massachusetts Bay Company

joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629. It was controlled by Non-Separatists who took the charter with them to New England and, in effect, converted it into a written constitution for the colony., A business with power from the king of england to set up a colony,pay for it,and make money from it.

Anne Hutchinson

She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.

Half-Way covenant

A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

Restoration Era

period that began in 1660 when the Stuart dynasty under Charles II was restored to the throne of England and ended with the overthrow of James II in 1688-1689.

Dominion of England

1686-The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). Ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros

William Penn

Penn, an English Quaker, founded Pennsylvania in 1682, after receiving a charter from King Charles II the year before. He launched the colony as a "holy experiment" based on religious tolerance.

First Navigation Act

Stated that only English ships could be used:1651


an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

balance of trade

the difference in value over a period of time of a country's imports and exports of merchandise

Iroquois League

a league of Iroquois tribes including originally the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca (the Five Nations)

Covenant Chain of Peace

The Covenant Chain was an alliance between the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) and the British colonies of North America. Their councils and subsequent treaties concerned colonial settlement, trade, and acts of violence between the Iroquois and the colonists.
The Covenant Chain is embodied in the Two Row Wampum, and got its start in 1676 when the Province of New York's governor Sir Edmund Andros negotiated the signing of two treaties in which the Iroquois spoke on behalf of the other tribes involved:
A treaty between the Iroquois Five Nations and the colonies of Massachusetts Bay Colony and Connecticut which ended King Philip's War in New England;
A treaty between the Iroquois and Delawares (Lenape), on one side, and the colonies of Virginia and Maryland, on the other, to obtain peace between those colonies and the Susquehannocks and Iroquois.

Metacom's War

Native Americans battle New England colonies; large percentage of native americans died, making it one of the bloodiest wars in US; severely damaged the Native American presence in the new world

Bacon's Rebellion

an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.

Glorious Revolution

A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.

Salem Witch Trials

Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.

Mixed and Balanced Constitution

kings, lords, commons- reflects society, had a sort of limit of power. In the colonies, king=crown-appointed governor, lords=appointed assembly, and commons=elected assembly.

Pueblo Revolt

This event, which occurred on August 10, 1680, in modern-day Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the most successful uprising against Spanish authority in the New World. The Native Americans took over the governor's residence as their own and remained there to protect their land. Spain was unable to reclaim its New Mexico colony for nearly 50 years.


limit the inheritance of property to a specific class of heirs


A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.

Gang labor

A system where planter organized their slaves into gangs, supervised them closely, and had them work in the fields all day. Primarily used on tobacco plantations.

fiat money

money that has value because the government has ordered that it is an acceptable means to pay debts

John Peter Zenger

Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.


a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions, movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society

James Oglethorpe

Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist's dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.

Great Awakening

Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.

King George's War

Also known as the War of Austrian Succession. It started out as a conflict between Britain and Spain, but then escalated when France sided with Spain.

French and Indian War

Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Albany Congress

1754 Intercolonial congress. Urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. Drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.

Peace of Paris 1763

Ended the Seven Year's War, France had to abandon all claim to North America; Great Britain received Canada and the eastern half of the Mississippi Valley, Spain got back the Philippine Islands and Cuba, but had to cede East and West Florida to England

Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

Pontiac's War

a 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area

Sugar Act

(1764) British deeply in debt partl to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.

Currency Act

restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using "hard" currency (gold and silver)

Quartering Act

an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists

Stamp Act

an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

non importation agreement

An act signed by 200 merchants pledging not ro buy any British goods until Parliament repeals the Stamp Act, colonial merchants and planters signed these agreements to promise to stop importing goods taxed by the townshed acts

Boston Massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

Coercive Acts

This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.

First Continental Congress

September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts

Battle of Lexington

A conflict marking the beginning of the Revolutionary War in Lexington, Massachusetts, on April 19, 1775. An American force of about seventy minutemen under Capt. John Parker assembled on Lexington green after receiving word from dispatch riders, including Paul Revere, that a British force of about 250 men, under Maj. John Pitcairn, was advancing to Concord to confiscate provincial military supplies. British soldiers fired on Parker's force after hearing a gunshot, although which side the shot came from is uncertain, and it may have been accidental.

Second Continental Congress

They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence

Battle of Trenton

The Americans surprised the Hessian troops guarding Trenton and took most of them prisoner; the Americans won.

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

Battle of Princeton

A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfires and fool the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they suprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.


A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.

Virginia Constitution

June 1776; became the first state to adopt a permanent, republican constitution i) Legislature chose the governor, the governor's council and all judges ii) The governor had no veto and hardly any patronage iii) Lower house faced annual elections but the upper house served 4-year terms iv) George Mason- drafted declaration of rights that the VA delegates passed before constitution- people should define their rights before empowering the government, affirmed human equality (except slaves), condemned hereditary privilege, called for rotation in office, trial by jury and extolled religious liberty

Pennsylvania Constitution

A governing document considered to be highly democratic yet with a tendency toward tyranny as the result of concentrating all powers in one set of hands

Northwest Ordinance

Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states

Shay's Rebellion

this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes

Philadelphia Convention

Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.

Bill of Rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)

Alexander Hamiliton

he believed that national goverment should rule, but only the rich should rule, -Secratary of Treasury
-Wants national bank
-Wants assumsion
-Killed in a duel

Whiskey Rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

High Federalists

John Adams was a federalist. he would not give into Hamilton. Their disagreements created a split in the federalist party.

Election of 1800

Tie between Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson which went to the House of Representatives. Jefferson won the presidency after 36 ballots when Alexander Hamilton persuaded three members of the House to vote for Jefferson. Significance: 12 amendment

Alien and Sedition Act

passed by federalists making it harder to become citizens and to deport any immigrant deemed dangerous. the second one outlawed the writing, speaking, or publications of false, scandalous, or malicious statements against the government

midnight judges

The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

Marbury vs. Madison

Case in which the supreme court first asserted th power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional

judicial review

the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional

War Hawk Congress

a. Members of the twelfth congress, most young nationalists from southern and western areas, who promoted war with Britain b. Won control of congress under Henry Clay—elected speaker of the house c. Madison sent war message to congress—first declared war under the constitution d. Presented a list of British crimes i. Enforcement of the orders in council, impressemnt of American seamen, use of spies, wielding a malicious influence over the Indians e. Congress declared war on June 18 f. War hawks strengthened the US army, but left the navy weak g. Led into the war of 1812


Shawnee chief who tried to united Native American tribes in Ohio and Indiana against encroaching white rule. Failed.

Hartford Convention

Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.


a colonial region that ran along the Appalachian Mountains.

National Road

First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.

American System

an economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.


This was the original name for Lowell, Massachusetts along the Merrimack River. Renamed Lowell in honor of the leading member of the Boston Associates who built the first factory system village at this town. Here every process in spinning and weaving cotton was mechanized.

Task System

A system of slave labor under which a slave had to complete a specific assignment each day. After they finished, their time was their own. Used primarily on rice plantations.


owners of small farms

Gabriel's Rebellion

A literate black slave that lived in the Richmond area launched a large scale slave revolt. Governor Monroe quickly crushed the rebellion.

Denmark Vesey

A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.

Nat Turner

Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.

Joseph Smith

Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.

Missouri Compromise

The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.

Panic of 1819

Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.

Corrupt Bargain

In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.

Election of 1828

The election of 1824 convinced Van Buren of the need for a renewed two-party competition. In the election of 1828, a new party formed & gradually became known as the Democratic Party which made Jackson president & Calhoun VP. Opponents called themselves the National Republicans.

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

Spoils System

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power; Jackson

Indian Removal Act

Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.

Petticoat Wars

Internal Dispute In Andrew Jackson's Cabinet. Concerned the Marriage of Peggy Timberlake and John Henry Eaton. Resulted in the Purge of his Cabinet.

The Second Bank of the United States

was essentially the same institution supported by Alexander Hamilton a generation before.

Bank Wars

Andrew Jackson's attack on the Second Bank of the United States during the early years of his presidency. In 1832 Andrew Jackson vetoed the renewal of the Second Bank of the United State's charter because he viewed the Second Bank of the United States as a monopoly: it was a private institution managed by a board of directors.

Election of 1840

Whigs united under William Henry Harrison, the one Whig candidate who had won national support 4 years earlier. Borrowing campaign tactics from the Democrats and inventing many of their own, Whigs campaigned hard in every state. The result was a Whig victory and a truly national two-party system.

Auburn System

Prison reform in 1790, based on concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform; actually led to many mental breakdowns; Auburn system, 1816, allowed congregation of prisoners during the day


the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment

American Anti-Slavery Society

Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.

Manifest Destiny

This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.

Horace Greely

coined the phrase "go west young man" in his paper The New York Tribune

Great American Desert

The vast arid territory that included the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Western Plateau. Known as this before 1860, they were the lands between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast.

Old Northwest

Region north and west of the Ohio River, included Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, MIchigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota.

Wilmot Proviso

Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.


anti-slavery agitators; there was a "Free Soil Party" from 1848 to 1854 (it was absorbed by the Republican Party when that party was formed); "The Free-Soilers' historic slogan calling for 'free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men' attracted small farmers, debtors, village merchants, and household and mill workers, who resented the prospect of black-labour competition-whether slave or free-in the territories

Compromise of 1850

Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession

Fugitive Slave Act

a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.


This is an attempt to obstruct a particular decision from being taken by using up the time available, typically through an extremely long speech. This would prevent the "opposing" party to pass an unfavorable law and ultimately force a compromise.

Kanas-Nebraska Act

an act that allowed people in Kansas and Nebraska to vote whether slavery would be allowed when they became a state

Know-Nothing Party

the new immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the "natives" because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". The members refused to indentify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Immigrants were helping to form the U.S. into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world.

Bleeding Kanas

bloodshed in Kanas caused by a civil war between pro and anti-slavery groups

Dred Scott Case

Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south

Panic of 1857

Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads

Fort Sumter

Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.

Monitor and Virginia

Battle of the Ironclads at Hampton Rds.
Significance: marked the end of the use of wooden naval ships

Battle of Bull Run

July 21, 1861. Va. (outside of D.C.) People watched battle. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson: Confederate general, held his ground and stood in battle like a "stone wall." Union retreated. Confederate victory. Showed that both sides needed training and war would be long and bloody

Battle of Shiloh

Confederate forces suprised union troops & drove them across the Tennesee river; union got backup and won the battle but it was one of the most bloody battles in the civil war

Battle of Antietam

Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties

Emancipation Proclamation

issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free

Gettysburg Campaign

General Lee's second attack to the north. He goes back to Gettysburg Pennsylvania, has no other alternative. Needs to beat it to the point where Washington wants to negotiate terms. 3 day fight. Largest number of casualties for a battle. In the end Lee's supplies wont sustain him in Pens.

Vicksburg Campaign

July 1863. Happened at the same time as Gettysburg. Ulysses S. Grant was a general who didn't mind fighting. Grant comes down the Mississippi river and is finally forced to go down on the other side and marches up and captures Jackson, then captures Vicksburg. That cut the confederacy in half. It took 3 months to take Vicksburg.


the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union

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