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MORT 263 - Anatomy & Pathology II - Final Vocabulary

MORT 263 - Anatomy & Pathology II - Final Vocabulary
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Abdominal anatomical region
9-region plan: by means of four imaginary planes, two of which are horizontal (indicated by lines drawn across the right and left tenth ribs and across the right and left anterior superior iliac spines) and two sagittal (indicated by lines drawn from the mid-point of the inguinal ligament to the nipples of the chest or mid-point of the clavicle, right and left side
4-region plan: by means of two imaginary planes, one horizontal and the other mid-sagittal
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Abdominal cavity
the cavity containing the abdominal organs; lying between the diaphragm and the pelvis
Abduction
movement of a body part away from the midline of the body
ABO group
the red blood cell type determined by the presence or absence of A or B antigens on the red blood cell membrane; the four types are A, B, AB and O
Abscess
localized accumulation of pus
Absorption
the taking in of materials by cells or tissues
Accessory (auxiliary, assisting)
this term is applied to a lesser structure that resembles in structure and function a similar organ, as an example the accessory pancreatic duct
Achilles tendon
common tendon of the calf muscles that attaches to the heel (calcaneus); named after a mythical Greek warrior who was vulnerable only in the heel
Acidosis
condition characterized by a lower than normal blood pH (pH of 7.35 or lower)
Acne
inflammation of the sebaceous gland and hair follicles
Acquired
presents itself after birth
Acquired immunity
immunity that is obtained after birth through the use of injections or exposure to a harmful agent
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
a specific group of diseases or conditions which are indicative of severe immunosuppression related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); infects helper T-cells; persons dead having had AIDS may exhibit conditions such as wasting syndrome, extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma
Acromegaly
hyperfunction of pituitary gland after ossification has been completed
Action potential
the changes of electrical charges on either side of a cell membrane in response to stimulus; depolarization followed by repolarization
Active immunity
the immunity provided by the production of antibodies after exposure to a foreign antigen; may be natural or artificial
Active transport
The process in which there is movement of molecules against a concentration gradient; that is from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration
Acute
A disease with a more or less rapid onset and short duration
Addison's disease
disease of the adrenal gland resulting in low blood sugar, low blood protein, weight loss and weakness
Adduction
the movement of a body part toward the midline of the body
Adenoid
enlarged pharyngeal tonsil
Adenology
the study of glands
Adenoma
benign tumor of the glandular epithelium
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
chemical compound that provides energy for use of body cells
Adipocyte
a cell of adipose tissue, specialized to store fat
Adipose tissue
a connective tissue composed primarily of adipocytes; functions as fat storage as a source of potential energy
Adrenal gland
a triangular body covering the superior surface of each kidney
Adrenalin
synonym for epinephrine
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
Aerobic
requiring oxygen
Afferent
to carry toward a center or main point
Agglutination
intravascular; the increase in viscosity of blood brought about by the clumping of particulate formed elements in the blood vessels; a specific form of coagulation
Albumin
a protein synthesized by the liver, which circulates in blood plasma; contributes to the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
Aldosterone
a hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that increases the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium by the kidneys
Alimentary canal
the digestive system tube from the mouth to the anus, including the mouth or buccal cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and small and large intestines
Alkalosis
condition characterized by a higher than normal blood pH (pH of 7.45 or above)
Allergies
having an acquired, abnormal (hypersensitive) immune response to a substance (allergen) that does not normally cause a reaction
Alpha cells
the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that secrete the hormone glucagons
Alveolar process
bony ridge found on the inferior surface of the maxilla and the superior surface of the mandible that contains the sockets for the teeth
Alveolar type I cell
simple squamous epithelial cell that forms the walls of the alveoli of the lungs
Alveolar type II cell
the septal cells in the lungs that produce pulmonary surfactant
Alveoli
the air sacs of the lungs, made of simple squamous epithelium, in which gas exchange takes place
Alzheimer's disease
a progressive brain disease of unknown cause resulting in loss of memory, intellectual ability, speech and motor control
Amelia
congenital absence of one or more limbs
Amino acid
building blocks of which proteins are constructed, and the end products of protein digestion or hydrolysis; their basic formula is NH2-CHR-COOH - an amino group (an alpha carbon, any aliphatic or aromatic radical and a carboxyl group)
Amniotic fluid
the fluid contained within the amnion; cushions the fetus and absorbs shock
Amphiarthrosis
A slightly moveable joint, such as a symphysis
Amylase
a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch to maltose; secreted by the salivary glands and the pancreas
Anabolism
synthesis reactions in which smaller molecules are bonded together to form larger molecules; require energy (ATP) and are catalyzed by enzymes
Anaerobic
in the absence of oxygen; not requiring oxygen
Anaplasia
growth of abnormal cells, as in a tumor or neoplasm
Anasarca
generalized massive edema in subcutaneous tissue
Anastomosis
a connection or joining especially of blood vessels
Anatomical guide
descriptive references for locating arteries and veins by means of the anatomical structures which are known
Anatomical position
the body is erect, feet together, palms facing forward and thumbs pointed away from the body
Anatomy
the structure of an organ, the branch of science dealing with the structure or organisms
Anemia
a decrease in the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, or both
Aneurysm
a localized dilation of a blood vessel
Angiology
the study of vessels
Angle of the mandible
body angle formed by the junction of the posterior edge of the ramus of the mandible and the inferior surface of the body of the mandible
Antagonism
mutual opposition or contrary action; the inhibition of one bacteria by another
Anterior (ventral)
before or in front of, refers to the ventral or abdominal side of the body
Anterior nares
external nostril openings
Anterior superior iliac spine
a bony protuberance that can be palpated topographically, found on the ilium, the superior broad portion of the hip bone; the origin of the inguinal ligament and the sartorius muscle
Antibody (immunoglobulin)
glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with, an antigen
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland; increases the reabsorption of water by the kidney tubules
Antigen
a foreign substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that interact specifically with it
Antisepsis
the prevention or inhibiting of the growth of causative microorganisms
Antithrombin
a protein synthesized by the liver that inactivates excess thrombin to prevent abnormal clotting
Aorta
large elastic artery that is the main trunk of the systemic arterial system, which carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart and passes through the thorax and abdomen
Aortic semilunar valve
the valve at the junction of the left ventricle and the aorta; prevents backflow of blood from the aorta to the ventricle when the ventricle relaxes
Aphasia
impairment or absence of the ability to communicate in speech, reading or writing; may involve word deafness or word blindness
Aplastic anemia
failure of the red bone marrow resulting in decreased number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets; may be a side effect of some medications
Aplasia
failure of a tissue or an organ to develop normally
Apocrine gland
the type of sweat gland found primarily in the axilla and genital area; actually a modified scent gland
Appendicular skeleton
the bony structure that makes up the shoulder girdle, upper extremities, pelvis and lower extremities
Aqueous
watery, prepared with water as a solvent
Aqueous humor
clear, thin alkaline fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eyeball
Areolar
containing minute interspaces in a tissue
Areolar connective tissue
a tissue that consists of tissue fluid, fibroblasts, collagen and elastic fibers, and wandering wbc's; found in all mucous membranes and in subcutaneous tissue
Arrhythmia
an abnormal or irregular rhythm of the heart
Arteriosclerosis
disease of the arteries resulting in thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls
Articulation
the place of union between two or more bones; a joint
Ascites
accumulation of free serous fluid in the abdominal cavity
Astrocyte
a type of neuralgia that forms the blood-brain barrier to prevent potentially harmful substances from affecting brain neurons
Atheroma
fatty degeneration of thickening of the walls of the larger arteries occurring in atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
a form of arteriosclerosis marked by the deposition of lipids in the inner layer of arterial walls
Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle, bundle of His)
bundle of modified cardiac muscle fibers that projects from the AV node through the interventricular septum; conducts action potentials from the AV node rapidly through the interventricular septum
Atrioventricular node (AV node)
small collection of specialized cardiac muscle fibers located in the inferior part of the right atrium; functions to delay action potential transmission to the AV bundle
Atrioventricular valve (AV valve)
valve located between the atrium and the ventricle of the heart; the tricuspid valve between the right atrium and right ventricle; the bicuspid (mitral) valve between the left atrium and left ventricle
Atrophy
a wasting; decrease in size of an organ or tissue
Attenuation
dilution or weakening of virulence of a microorganism, reducing or abolishing pathogenicity
Autolysis
self-destruction of cells; decomposition of all tissues by enzymes of their own formation without microbial assistance
Autotrophic bacteria
self-nourishing bacteria that are capable of growing in the absence of organic compounds; organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide
Axial
situated in or pertaining to an axis (a real or imaginary line that runs through the center of a body or about which a point revolves)
Axial skeleton
80 bones including the skull, vertebrae, thorax and hyoid bone
Axon
the cellular process of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body
Autopsy (necropsy)
a postmortem examination of the organs and tissue of a body to determine cause of death or pathological condition
Bacillus (bacilli)
rod shaped bacteria
Bacteremia
the presence of bacteria in the blood
Bacteria
a prokaryotic one-celled microorganism of the Kingdom Monera, existing as free living organisms or as parasites, multiplying by binary fission and having a large range of biochemical properties
Bacterial colony
a visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism
Bactericide
an agent that destroys bacteria but not necessarily their spores
Bacteriology
science that studies bacteria
Benign
mild in character or non-malignant; does not spread to distant sites
Beta cells
the cells of the islet of Langerhans of the pancreas that secrete the hormone insulin
Bilateral symmetry
the symmetry of paired organs, of an organisms whose right and left halves are mirror images of each other, or in which a median longitudinal section divides the organism into equivalent right and left halves
Biliary
pertaining to bile
Biliary tract
the organs and ducts that participate in the secretion, storage and delivery of bile in the duodenum
Binary fission
a method of asexual reproduction involving halving of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell followed by the development of each half into a new individual
Biopsy
the process of removing tissue from living patients for diagnostic examination or a specimen obtained by biopsy
Biological vector
an arthropod vector in which the disease causing organism multiplies or develops within the arthropod prior to becoming infective for a susceptible individual
Bladder
a membranous sac or receptacle for a secretion
Blister
thin vesicle on the skin containing liquid matter
Blood
tissue that circulates through the vascular system and is composed of approximately 22% solids and 78% water
Body of the mandible
horizontal portion of the lower jaw
Boil (furuncle)
acute, deep-seated inflammation in the skin which usually begins as a subcutaneous swelling in a hair follicle
Buccal
relating to the cheek or mouth
Burn
to oxidize or to cause to be oxidized by fire or equivalent means; a tissue reaction or injury resulting from the application of heat, extreme cold, caustic material, radiation, friction or electricity
Cachexia
a general state of ill health, associated with emaciation; severe form of malnutrition
Canal
a narrow tube, channel or passageway
Cancer
any malignant neoplasm marked by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
Capsule
a sheath or continuous enclosure around an organ or structure; the membrane that surrounds some bacterial cells; a loose gel-like structure that, in pathogenic bacteria, helps to protect against phagocytosis
Carbuncle
several communicating boils of the skin and subcutaneous tissues with the production of discharge of pus and dead tissue
Carcinogen
a cancer-causing chemical or material
Carcinoma
a malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue
Cardiology
the study of the heart
Carotid canal
a canal in the petrous portion of the temporal lobe that transmits the internal carotid artery and the internal carotid plexus of sympathetic nerves
Cartilage
a specialized type of dense connective tissue; attached to the ends of bones and forming parts of structures, such as nasal septum and the framework of the ear
Cavitation
formation of cavities in an organ or tissue; frequently seen in some forms of tuberculosis
Central
situated at or pertaining to a center or central point
Chlamydia
a large group of non-motile, gram negative intracellular parasites
Choanae
funnel shaped openings, especially of the posterior nares; one of the communicating passageways between the nasal fossae and the pharynx
Chordae tendineae
tendinous strands running from the papillary muscles to the free margin of the cusps that make up the tricuspid and bicuspid valves; prevents the cusps of these valves from extending up into the atria during ventricular contraction
Chronic
a disease with a more or less slow onset and long duration
Cleft palate
congenitally malformed palate with a fissure along the midline
Clinical pathology
study of disease by means of body secretions, excretions, and other body fluids performed in the laboratory in the diagnosis of a disease
Clostridium perfrigens
anaerobic, saprophytic, spore-forming bacterium, responsible for tissue gas; referred to as gas bacillus
Coccus (cocci)
a type of bacteria that is spherical or ovoid in form
Colon
the large intestine from the end of the cecum to the anal canal that surrounds the anus
Commensalism
the symbiotic relationship of two organisms of different species in which one gains some benefit such as protection or nourishment and the other is not harmed or benefitted
Communicable
a disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another
Complication
an unfavorable condition arising during the course of a disease
Concha
one of the three nasal conchae; a scroll-like bone
Concussion
the immediate and temporary disturbance of brain function
Condyle
a rounded protuberance at the end of the bone forming an articulation
Congenital
existing at the time of birth or shortly thereafter
Congestion
accumulation of an access of blood or tissue fluid in a body part
Contamination
the act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area of substance
Contusion
a bruise, often accompanied with swelling
Cortex
the outer layer of an organ as distinguished from the inner medulla, as in the adrenal gland, kidney, ovary, lymph node, thymus, cerebrum and cerebellum
Cretinism
a congenital condition due to hypothyroidism resulting in mental retardation
Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (vCJD)
a disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology, assumed to be a slow virus; because of unknown etiology, caregivers using invasive procedures use extreme caution
Cryptorchism
condition in which the descent of a testis into the scrotum is arrested at some point in the normal path
Curvature
a normal or abnormal bending or sloping away; a curve
Cyanosis
bluish discoloration of the skin or mucous membrane due to a lack of oxygen
Cyst
a sac within or on the body surface containing air or fluid
Cystic
of or pertaining to a cyst; pertaining to the gallbladder; pertaining to the urinary bladder
Deep
below the surface
Deficiency
disease due to lack of dietary or metabolic substance
Degeneration
the deterioration of tissue with corresponding functional impairment as a result of disease or injury
Dehydration
loss of moisture from body tissue which may occur antemortem or postmortem
Detoxification
reduction of the toxic properties of a poisonous substance
Diagnosis
the term denoting the naming of t he disease or syndrome; to recognize the nature of a disease
Dialysis
separation of substances in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane
Dilation
the condition of the heart bending enlarged, occurring normally, artificially, or as a result of disease
Diplobacilli
a double bacillus, two being linked end to each; Morax-Axenfeld bacillus, a cause of conjunctivitis is typical of this form
Diplococcus
a genus of bacteria that occur in pairs
Disease
any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of a body part, organ or system
Disinfectant
a chemical or physical agent that kills disease-causing microorganisms
Disinfection
the destruction of infectious agents by chemical or physical means
Distal
farthest from the center, from a medial line, or from the trunk; opposite the proximal
Drug-fast
resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drug or drugs
Dry gangrene (ischemic necrosis)
condition that results when the body part that dies had little blood and remains aseptic and occurs when the arteries, but not the veins, are obstructed
Dysplasia
abnormal development of tissue
Ecchymosis
small, non-elevated hemorrhagic patch; extravasation of blood into a tissue
Ectopic pregnancy
the implantation of the fertilized ovum in a site other than the normal one in the uterine cavity
Edema (dropsy)
abnormal accumulation of fluids in tissue or body cavity
Emaciation
excessive wasting away of the body
Embolism
free floating object in the blood stream
Eminence
a prominence or projection, especially of a bone
Empyema
pus in the pleural cavity
Endemic
a disease that is continuously present in a community; disease that occurs continuously in a particular region but has low mortality
Endocrine
an internal secretion; pertaining to a gland that secretes directly into the blood stream
Endogenous infection
produced or arising from within a cell or organism
Endospore
a thick walled spore within a bacterium
Endotoxin
bacterial toxin confined within the body of a bacterium freed only when the bacterium is broken down, found only in gram negative bacteria
Enzyme
an organic catalyst produced by living cells and capable of autolytic decomposition
Epidermis
outermost layer of skin; cuticle or scarf skin
Epidemic
a disease that is currently in higher than normal numbers; appearance of an infectious disease or condition that attacks many people at the same time in the same geographical area
Epilepsy
a chronic neurogenic disease marked by sudden alterations in consciousness and frequently by convulsions
Epistaxis
bleeding from the nose
Erythrocyte
red blood cell; biconcave disk that contains hemoglobin, which transports oxygen and carbon dioxide; a mature erythrocyte does not contain red bone marrow
Etiology
the study of the cause of disease
Exacerbation
increase in severity of a disease
Exocrine
a term applied to the external secretion of a gland
Exogenous infections
originating outside an organ or part
Exotoxin
a toxin produced by a microorganism and excreted into its surrounding medium
Exsanguination
loss of blood to the point where life can no longer be sustained
External
exterior; the opposite of internal
External auditory meatus
the lateral, outer opening of the external auditory canal
Exudate
the fluid that oozes through the tissues into a cavity or to the surface; a product of inflammation
Facultative aerobe
a microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live and grow in the presence of oxygen
Facultative anaerobe
a microorganism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence
Facultative saprophyte
a microorganism that prefers living organic matter as a source of nutrition but can adapt to the use of dead organic matter under certain conditions
Fat
organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; chemically a triglyceride ester, composed of glycerol and fatty acids
Fatty acids
a product of decomposition of fats
Febrile
term associated with fever
Fibrin
a threadlike protein fiber derived from fibrinogens by the action of thrombin; forms a clot, that is a network of fibers that traps blood cells, platelets and fluid, which stops bleeding
Focal infection
one in which the organisms are originally confined to one area but enter the blood or lymph vessels and spread to other parts of the body
Fomite
any inanimate object to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted
Fossa
a furrow or shallow depression
Frontal eminence
a rounded prominence on either side of the median line and a little below the center of the frontal bone
Frontal sinuses
an irregular cavity in the frontal bone on either side of the midline above the nasal bridge. One may be larger than the other
Fulminating
having rapid and severe onset, usually fatal
Functional
a condition or disease in which there is no recognizable change in anatomy
Fungicide
an agent that kills fungi
Fungus (fungi)
a group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicellular organisms, lacking chlorophyll, usually bearing spores and often filamentous
Furuncle
an abscess or pyogenic infection of a sweat gland or hair follicle
Gallbladder
a pear shaped sac on the underside of the right lobe of the liver that stores bile received from the liver
Gaster
combining form meaning stomach
General infection
an infection that becomes systemic
General pathology
deals with the study of the widespread process of disease such as inflammation, degeneration, necrosis or cellular death, repair, etc., without reference to particular organs or organ systems
Germicide
a substance that destroys microorganisms
Gland
a secretory organ or structure; a cell or group of cells that can manufacture a secretion discharged and used in some other part of the body
Goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency
Gross pathology
study of changes in structure of the body that are readily seen with the unaided eye as a result of disease
Hematemesis
vomiting of blood
Hematoma
tumor like swelling of blood
Hematuria
Discharge of red blood cells in the urine
Hemophilia
an inherited hemorrhagic disease characterized by a tendency to excessive and sometimes spontaneous bleeding
Hemoptysis
blood in sputum
Hemorrhage
escape of blood from blood vascular system
Hepar
the liver
Hepatitis
inflammation of the liver; it may be caused by a variety of agents, including viral infections, bacterial invasion and physical or chemical agents; it is usually accompanied by fever, jaundice and an enlarged liver
Hereditary
genetic characteristics transmitted from parent to offspring
Hernia
abnormal protrusion of part of an organ through an abnormal opening in the wall that normally contains it
Heterocrine
a gland that has both endocrine and exocrine functions (example: pancreas)
Heterotrophic bacteria
an organism that must obtain its nourishment from complex organic matter
Hydrocele
abnormal collection of fluid in any sacculated cavity in the body, especially tunica vaginalis
Hydrocephalus
excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain
Hydronephrosis
distention of the pelvis and calyces of one or both kidneys with urine as a result of obstruction
Hydropericardium
abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac
Hydrothorax
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity
Hyperemia
excess of blood in an area of the body
Hyperplasia
the increased size of an organ or part due to the excessive but regulated increase in the number of its cells
Hypertrophy
the enlargement of an organ or part due to the increase in size of cells composing it
Hypochlorites (bleaches)
chlorine-containing compounds
Hypoplasia
underdevelopment of a tissue, organ or the body
Iatrogenic
results from the adverse activity of medical personnel
Idiopathic
of unknown cause (example: essential hypertension)
Indigenous flora (normal flora)
indicates the microbial population that lives with the host in a healthy condition
Infarction
the formation of an area of necrosis in a tissue caused by obstruction in the artery supplying the area
Infection
the state or condition in which the body or part of it is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects
Inferior
beneath; lower; used medically in reference to the undersurface of an organ or indicating a structure below another structure
Inferior nasal concha
a facial bone
Infestation
the harboring of animal parasites, especially macroscopic forms, such as ticks or mosquitoes
Infiltration
the process of seepage or diffusion into tissue of substances that are not ordinarily present
Inflammation
a tissue reaction to irritation, infection or injury marked by localized heat, swelling, redness, pain and sometimes loss of function
Insecticide
a substance that kills insects
Integumentary
relating to the integument (a covering; the skin, consisting of the corium or dermis, and epidermis)
Internal
within the body; within or on the inside; the opposite of external
Intoxication
state of being intoxicated, especially of being poisoned by a drug or toxic substance
Intracranial hemorrhage
extravasation of blood within the skull
Inversion
tissues turned in an opposite direction or folded inward
Iodophores
a compound consisting of iodine combined with a carrier, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, often used as a preoperative skin disinfectant
Ischemia
reduction in arterial blood supply
Islet
a tiny isolated mass of one kind of tissue within another type
Islets of Langerhans
Clusters of cells in the pancreas
Jaundice
conditions characterized by excessive concentration of bilirubin in the skin and tissues and deposition of excessive bile pigment in the skin, cornea, body fluids and mucous membranes with the resulting yellow appearance of the patient
Joints
the point of juncture between the bones. A joint is usually formed of fibrous connective tissue and cartilage
Larvicide
substance used to kill insect larva
Lateral
pertaining to the side
Legionnaires' disease
a severe, often fatal bacterial disease characterized by pneumonia, dry cough and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms
Lesion
specific pathologic structural and functional changes or both brought about by disease
Leukemia
disease characterized by the appearance of great numbers of immature and abnormal white blood cells
Leukocyte
white blood cell; nucleated cell involved in immunity. The five types of leukocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes
Leukocytosis
increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood
Leukopenia
abnormal reduction in the number of white blood cells in the blood
Lobes
well defined parts of an organ separated by boundaries
Local infection
infection caused by germs lodging and multiplying at one point in a tissue and remaining there
Lumen
the cavity or opening of a vessel or intestine
Lymphoma
malignancy of lymphoid tissue
Lysin
specific antibody acting destructively upon cells and tissues
Lysosome
organelle that exists within a cell, but separate from the cell; contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down proteins and certain carbohydrates
Malformation
a defect or deformity
Mandibular fossa
the depression in the temporal bone into which the condyle of the mandible fits
Margin
a boundary such as the edge of a structure of the anatomy
Maximum temperature
temperature above which bacterial growth will not take place
Meatus
a passage or opening
Mechanical vector
a living organism or an object that is capable of transmitting infections by carrying the disease agent on its external body parts or surface
Medial
pertaining to the middle
Medico-legal (forensic) pathology
study of disease to ascertain cause and manner of death
Medulla
inner or central portion of an organ in contrast to the outer portion or cortex
Melena
blood in stool
Melanin
the brown to black-brown pigment in the epidermis and hair
Meningitis
inflammation of the meninges
Mesophile
bacteria that prefers moderate temperature and develops best at temperatures between 25 C and 40 C
Metaplasia
replacement of one type of tissue into a form that is not normally found there
Metastasize
transfer from its primary site to a distant location
Microaerohilic
a microorganism that requires very little free oxygen
Microbiology
scientific study of microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms
Microscopic pathology (histopathology)
study of microscopic changes that cells, tissues and organs undergo as a result of disease
Minimum temperature
temperature below which bacterial growth will not take place
Mixed infection
infection caused by two or more organisms
Moist (wet) gangrene
necrotic tissue that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage; may be accompanied by the invasion of saprophytic bacteria
Morbidity rate
relative incidence of a disease in the population or number of cases in a given time at a given population
Mortality rate
number of deaths in a given time or place or proportion of deaths to a population
Mutualism
a relationship in which organisms of two different species live in close association to the mutual benefit of each
Mycology
the branch of science concerned with the study of fungi
Mycoplasmas
bacteria of the Mycoplasma genus that are found in humans and most have no cell wall
Myology
the study of muscles
Nares
nostrils
Nasal septum
the partition that divides the nasal cavity into two fossae
Necrosis
pathological death of a tissue still a part of the living organism
Neoplasm (tumor)
the abnormal, excessive and uncontrolled multiplication of cells with the formation of a mass or new growth of tissue
Nephritis
inflammation of the kidneys
Neurology
the study of the nervous system
Nevus
birthmark; congenital skin blemish; any congenital anomaly including various types of birthmarks and all types of moles
Neurology
the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and its diseases
Non-symbiotic
organisms that are free-living and relationships are not required for survival
Nosocomial
infection acquired in a hospital
Occupational disease
a disease with an abnormally high rate of occurrence in m embers of the work force
Opportunist
an organisms that exists as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain conditions
Optimum temperature
temperature at which organisms grow best
Oral
concerning the mouth
Organic
a condition or disease in which there is a change in anatomy
Orifice
the mouth, entrance or outlet of any anatomical structure; opening
Osmotic pressure
pressure that develops when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semi-permeable membrane
Ossicles
any small bone, especially one of the small bones of the ear
Osteomalacia
a disease marked by softening of the bones due to faulty calcification in adulthood
Osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone and bone marrow
Osteoporosis
loss of bone density
Pandemic disease
epidemic, widespread, even of worldwide event; a disease affecting the majority of the population of a large region or one that is epidemic at the same time in many different parts of the world
Passive transport system
method by which solutes and/or solvents cross through a membrane with no energy provided by the cells of the membrane; in embalming, examples include pressure filtration, dialysis, diffusion and osmosis
Parasitism
an interactive relationship between two organisms in which one is harmed and the other benefits
Parietal
pertaining to, or forming, the wall of a cavity; pertaining to the parietal bone
Pathogenicity
the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease
Pathological anatomy (morbid anatomy)
study of structural changes in the body caused by disease
Pathology
the science that deals with the study of disease
Pathogenesis
the manner in which a disease develops
Pectoral
concerning the chest
Peripheral
located at, or pertaining to, the periphery (the outer part or surface of a body); occurring away from the center
Peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum, the membranous coat lining the abdominal cavity, and infecting the viscera
Perpendicular
at right angles to another surface
Petechia
antemortem, pinpoint, extravascular blood discoloration visible as purplish hemorrhages of the skin
pH
potential of hydrogen; a number signifying the acidity or alkalinity of a chemical solution
Phocomelia
congenital condition in which the proximal portions of the limbs are poorly developed or absent
Physiologic pathology
study of changes in body functions due to disease
Pigmentation
coloration caused by deposit, or lack, of colored material in the tissues
Plasma
fluid part of the blood; blood minus the formed elements
Platelets
a cell fragment involved in platelet plug and clot formation; also called a thrombocyte
Pneumoconiosis
general term used to denote any prolonged inhalation of mineral dust
Pneumonia
infection of the lungs; acute infection or inflammation of the alveoli; the alveolar sacs fill up with fluid and dead white blood cells; causes include bacteria, fungi and viruses
Point of entry
place (usually visible) at which access of inner positions may be had; a place at w which a hypodermic needle may be inserted to pass into the same or another area
Poliomyelitis
a highly contagious infectious disease of the spinal cord caused by a filterable virus
Polycythemia vera
an increase in total red blood cell mass
Polyp
a growth or mass of tissue that protrudes from a mucous membrane
Portal
concerning an entrance to an organ, especially that through w which the blood is carried to the liver
Posterior (dorsal)
toward the rear or caudal end; opposite of anterior
Prevalence
number of cases of disease present in a specified population at a given time
Primary infection
an original infection from which a second one originates
Prion
a small proteinaceous infectious particle that is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acid
Prognosis
prediction of the outcome of disease
Prostatitis
inflammation of the prostate gland
Protozoa
one-celled organisms or the Kingdom Proista: most are unicellular although some are colonial
Protozoology
science that deals with study of protozoa
Protuberance
a part that is prominent beyond a surface, like the knob
Proximal
nearest the point of attachment, center of body, or point of reference; the opposite of distal
Psychrophile
bacteria that prefer cold, thriving at temperatures between 0 C and 25 C
Pubic symphysis
the junction of the pubic bones on the midline in front; the bony eminence under the pubic hair
Purpura
condition in which spontaneous bleeding occurs in the subcutaneous tissues, causing the appearance of purple patches on the skin
Pustule
a small elevation of the skin containing pus
Pyloric sphincter
the smooth muscle around the opening of the stomach into the duodenum
Quadrangle
a figure having four angles and four sides
Quadratus Labii superioris
the large muscle from the cheekbone and lower rim of the eye socket which raises the upper lip
Ramus
vertical portion of the mandible
Recurrent
reappearance of symptoms after a period of remission (abatement)
Regeneration
the replacement of damaged cells with identical cells
Remission
temporary cessation of symptoms of disease
Renal calculi
kidney stones
Repair
physical or mechanical restoration of damaged or diseased tissue by the growth of healthy new cells not necessarily the same type, or by surgery
Reproductive
pertaining to or employed in reproduction
Resolution
the termination of the inflammatory response with the affected part returning to its normal state
Respiratory
pertaining to respiration
Rickets
a disease of infants and young children caused by deficiency of vitamin D resulting in defective bone growth
Rickettsia
a genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracellular parasitic bacteria
Rickettsiology
area of science that studies Rickettsia
Right atrium
the right side of the heart seen as the center of drainage; used as a site of drainage via instruments from the right internal jugular veins and direct via the trocar or through the thoracic wall
Sagittal line
the median vertical line dividing the body into right and left halves
Salivary
pertaining to, producing or formed from saliva
Salivary gland
a gland of the oral cavity that secretes saliva
Saprophytic bacteria
bacteria that derive their nutrition from dead organic matter
Sarcinae
a cube-like packet of eight spherical bacteria
Scab
crust over a healing sore or wound
Second degree burn
a burn resulting in acute inflammation of the skin and blisters
Secondary infection
infection caused by a different organism than the one causing the primary infection
Sepsis
pathologic state, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the blood or other tissues
Septicemia
condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood
Septum
a wall dividing two cavities
Serum
any serous fluid, especially the fluid that moistens the surfaces of the serous membranes; the watery portion of the blood after coagulation; a fluid found when clotted blood is left standing long enough for the clot to shrink
Serum albumin
a protein found in blood serum
Sesamoid bone
an oval nodule of bone or fibrocartilage in a tendon playing over a bony surface. The patella is the largest one
Signs
objective disturbances produced by disease, observed by physician, nurse or person attending patient (example: pulse, fever, heart rate)
Simple fracture
fractured bone does not pierce the skin
Singe
to burn superficially as the hair, which shows partial destruction from scorching heat
Sinus
a cavity within a bone; a dilated channel for venous blood; any cavity having a relatively narrow opening
Skeletal
pertaining to the skeleton
Special pathology
deals with the specific features of disease in relation to particular organs or organ systems
Sphincter
a circular muscle constricting an orifice
Spina bifida
congenital defect in which part of the vertebral column is absent or has incomplete closure
Spirillum (spirilla)
a genus of spiral bacteria having a corkscrew shape with a rigid cell wall and hair like projections called flagella that assist in movement
Spirochete
a genus of bacteria having a flexible cell wall but no flagella in the traditional sense; movement of these organisms occurs by contraction of long filaments that run the length of the cells
Sporadic
disease that occurs occasionally in a random, scattered or isolated manner
Staphylococcus
a genus of gram positive, non-motile, opportunistic bacteria which tend to aggregate in irregular, grape-like clusters
Stenosis
abnormal constriction of a channel or orifice
Sternocleidomastoid muscle
muscle of the neck that is attached to the mastoid process of the temporal bone and superior nuchal line and by separate heads to the sternum and clavicle; they function together to flex the head, form the lateral boundaries of the cervical triangle, and widest part of the neck
Sterilization
process of completely removing or destroying all life forms or their products on or in a substance
Streptobacilli
rod shaped bacteria occurring in chains
Streptococci
spherical shaped bacteria occurring in chains
Strict (obligate) aerobe
a microbe that can only live in the presence of oxygen
Strict (obligate) anaerobe
a microbe that can only survive in the absence of free oxygen
Strict (obligate) parasite
a parasite that is completely dependent on its living host for survival
Strict (obligate) saprophyte
an organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter
Subcutaneous
situated or occurring beneath the skin
Subcutaneous emphysema
distention of the tissues beneath the skin by gas or air; an antemortem condition brought about by a surgical procedure or trauma
Submandibular
describing those portions which lie immediately inferior to the mandible
Submental sulcus
junction of the base of the chin and the submandibular area, which may appear as a furrow; a natural facial marking
Sulcus
a wrinkle or furrow or groove
Sunken
situated as a depression; concave
Superciliary arches
inferior part of the forehead just superior to the median ends of the eyebrows
Superior
anatomically towards the head; higher than; situated above something else
Superior palpebral sulcus
furrow of the superior border of the upper eyelid; acquired facial marking
Superficial
pertaining to or situated near the surface
Suprarenal
located above the kidney
Surgical pathology
study of tissue specimens excised surgically in a major or minor operation
Sutural
relating to the suture (the line of union in an immovable articulation, as those between the skull bones)
Symbiotic
organisms live in close nutritional relationships; required by one or both members
Symphysis
a line of fusion between two bones that are separate in early development
Symptoms
subjective disturbances caused by disease that are felt or experienced by patient but not directly measurable (example: pain, headache)
Syndrome
set of signs and symptoms associated with a particular disease (example: Down syndrome)
Synergism
the harmonious action of two microorganisms producing an effect that neither could produce alone
Systems
organized groupings of related structures or organs that perform certain functions together
Temple
the flattened, slightly depressed area by the side of the forehead of a person's face
Temporal bones
inferior portion of the sides and base of the cranium, inferior to the parietal bones and anterior to the occipital bone
Temporal cavity
concave surface of the head overlying the temporal bones
Temporalis muscle
muscle of mastication which helps to close the mandible (the strongest chewing muscle)
Tendon
the white, glistening, non-elastic fibrous cord of connective tissue in which the fibers of a muscle end and by which the muscle is attached to a bone or other structure
Tetracocci
grouping of four spherical shaped cells
Thermophile
bacteria that thrive best at high temperatures, between 40 C and 70 C
Third degree burn
destruction of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues; seared, charred or roasted tissue
Thrombosis
the formation or presence of an attached blood clot
Toxemia
blood distribution throughout the body of poisonous products of bacteria growing in a focal or local site, thus producing generalized symptoms; presence of toxins in the blood
Toxin
poisonous substance of plant, animal, bacterial or fungal origin
Transverse
lying at right angles to the long axis of the body
Transverse frontal sulci
furrows which cross the forehead; acquired facial markings
Triangular fossa
depression between the crura of the ear; the second deepest depression of the ear
True pathogen
real or genuine disease producing organism; an organism that due to its own virulence is able to produce disease
Tubal pregnancy
implantation and development of the fertilized ovum in a uterine tube
Tubulo-alveolar
consisting of tubes and alveoli, as in a tubulo-alveolar salivary gland
Tumor
spontaneous new growth of tissue forming an abnormal mass
Tunics
investing membranes
Ulcer
an open sore or lesion of skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue
Uremia
a toxic condition caused by retention in the blood of waste products normally excreted in the urine
Urinary
pertaining to the secretion or containment of urine
Urinary system
composed of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
Valve
any one of various membranous structures in a hollow organ or passage that temporarily closes to permit the flow of fluid in one direction only
Valvular insufficiency (incompetence)
failure of a heart valve to close tightly, thus allowing regurgitation of blood
Vascular
pertaining to or composed of blood vessels
Vascular system
the blood vessels; the arteries, capillaries and veins
Vermiform appendix
a long, narrow, worm-shaped tube connected to the cecum
Vertical interciliary sulcus
the vertical furrows on the forehead between the eyebrows; plural form sulci
Vesicle
blister like elevation of skin containing serous fluid
Vibrio
a genus of spiral bacteria which are curved or bent rods that resemble commas
Viral hepatitis
inflammation of the liver caused by a virus (possibly as many as seven in number) capable of causing acute or chronic hepatitis illness; the transmission can be oral-facial, parenteral or sexual
Viricide
an agent destructive to viruses9
Virology
the study of viruses and viral diseases
Virulence
relative power of an organism to produce disease
Virus
an intracellular, infectious parasite capable of living and reproducing only in living cells
Visceral
pertaining to viscera (internal organs enclosed within a cavity, especially the abdominal organs)
Viscosity
the state of being sticky or gummy; resistance offered by a fluid to change form or relative position of its particles due to attraction of molecules to each other
Vomer bone
bone of the nasal cavity situated between the nasal passages on the median plane; forms the inferior and posterior portion of the septum of the nose
Zygomatic arch
processes on the temporal and zygomatic bones, determines the widest part of the face
Zygomatic arch depression
one of the lesser concavities of the face located on the lateral portion of the cheek inferior to the zygomatic arch
Zygomatic bones
small bones of the cheeks; widest part of the cheek
Zygomatic process
a thin projection from the temporal bone bounding its squamous portion; a part of the malar bone helping to form the zygoma
Zygomaticofrontal process
lateral rim of the eye socket formed by a process of the frontal bone and a process of the zygomatic bone
Zygomaticus major muscles
muscles of the face that draw the superior lip posteriorly, superiorly and anteriorly; from the cheekbone to the sides of the mouth
Zygomaticus minor muscles
muscles of the face that draw the superior lip superiorly and anteriorly; part of the Quadratus labii superioris