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Agricultual density

the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agricultural

Agricultural revolution

the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longe relied entirely on hunting and gathering

Arithmetic density

the total number of people divided by the total land area


a complete enumeration of a population

Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society

Crude Death Rate (CDR)

the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society

Demograhic Transition

the process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population


the scientific study of population charcteristics

Dependency ratio

the number of people under the age 15 and over the age 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force

Doubling time

the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase

Epidemiological transition

distinctive cases of death in each stage of the demographic transition


branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and the control of diseases that affect large numbers of people


the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement

Industrial Revolution

a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods

Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)

the total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society

Life expectancy

the average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live

Medical Revolution

medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of daeth in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives

Natural Increase Rate (NIR)

the percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate


the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard o living


disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population

Physiological density

the number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agricultural

Population pyramid

a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex

Sex ratio

the number of males per 100 females in the population

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)

the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years

Zero Population Growth (ZPG)

a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero

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