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Life's building blocks

how are organic molecules related to all living things?

carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

name four catagories of organic molecules which form the basis of all living things


all of the organic molecules are based on which element?


many times, the molecules join to form long chains with what kind of backbones?

form large molecules and stacked like a wall

how are the building blocks of organic molecules like bricks?

sugar, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides

what is the building block of each of the four classes of organic molecules?

building blocks joined together to form a wall- large molecule

what is a polymer?

their functional groups and shapes

what determines how organic molecules look and behave?

1. all contain carbon
2. small molecules
3. produces functional group
4. builds larger molecules

what are the four common characteristics of all organic molecules?

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

what are the elements contained in carbohydrates?

a monosacchride (sugar)

what is the building block of carbohydrates?

one sugar

what is a monosacchride?

looks like a ring

what does a monosacchride look like?

two sugars

what is a disacchride?

three or more sugars

how does a polysacchride differ from a disachride?

mono, poly, di

what are the three classes of carbohydrates?

startches, glycogen, cellulose

what are the three classes of polysacchrides


what involves food stoage in plants?


what inloves food storage in animals?

get quick energy

why would an athlete have a big pasta dinner before a race?

fatty acids

what is the building block of a lipid?

lard, oil, butter, wax

name examples of lipids

chain of carbon w/ single hydrogen bonds. has carboxyl group

decribe the structure of a fatty acid

unhealthy fats, no hydrogen bonds are lost

what is a saturated fatty acid?

soluble in oil, but insoluble in water

explain the solubility of lipids

if you out your food on a brown napkin, then you hold up your napkin to the light and it is translucent, then you know your food was a lipid.

how would you test for lipids, and what is a positive result

forms muscle, transfer oxygen, hormones

what are some of the functions of proteins?

amino acids

what is the building block of proteins?

peptide bond

what is the name of the bond that joins amino acids?


how many different amino acids are there?

the R group

what part of the amino acid varies from one amino acid to another?

the sequence of the R group

what determines the shape and function of a protein?


what are two types of nucleic acids?

genetic info to produce proteins

what is the role of DNA?

carry out instructions from the DNA to the cytoplasm were protein is made

what is the role of RNA?


what is the building blocks of nucleic acids?

1. 5 carbon sugar
2. phosphate group
3. nitrgoen base

what are the three parts of this monomer?

double helix, looks like a ladder

describe the structure and shape of DNA

sugars and phosphate

what are the rails of the ladder made of?

nitrogen bases

how are the rails of the ladder kept together?


what are the four different DNA bases?


'A' always pairs with what base?

1. deoxyribose-ribose
2. double helix-one strand
3. C,G,A,T-C,G,A,U
4. cannot leave nucleus of a cell-can leave nucleus

List four differences between DNA and RNA

1. both contain sugar
2. have C & G bases

List two similarities between DNA and RNA


what part of the later do bases form?

dehydration (condensation)

what is the name of the chemical process that joins a dicacchride and the polysacchride?

5 (always same as peptide bond)

if there is 5 peptide bonds present in a moecule, how many molecules of water are present


scientific study of life


study of chemistry of living things

sucrose (table sugar)

glucose + fructose =

maltose (grain sugar) or lactose (milk sugar)

glucose + glucose =


break down dissacchride into monosacchride by adding water


walls of fungi and exoskeletons of many arthropods

cystalline solids at RT
sweet taste
soluble in water
low MP and BP
usually white solids

characterisctics of mono and di sacchrides

solids at RT
light colored
high MP
bland taste

characteristics of polyssacchride


structural protein- muscles and ligaments


structural protein- feathers and nails

peptide bond

removal of H20 forms...

denature of protein structures

if h bonds break protein will uncoil, protein will loose shape and function

liquids at Rt
fatty acid chains contain unsaturation
linked chains do not pack as tight as solids
plants make unsaturated oils

characteristics of oils

semi-solids at RT
saturated; packed tightly
animals covert excess sugar to fat

characteristics of waxes

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