1793 granted federal courts the affirmative power to hear disputes between private citizens and States
Marbury v. Madison
1803 judicial review - checks and balances
Fletcher v. Peck
1810 protected property rights and asserted the right to invalidate state laws in conflict with the Constitution
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 Congress granted implied powers for implementing the Constitution's express powers, in order to create a functional national government.
State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
Gibbons v. Ogden
1824 Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 Cherokee were not a state and, despite their claim to be independent of the United States, were a "denominated domestic dependent nation."
Dred Scott v. Sandford
1857 slaves were not citizens; declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional
Ex parte Milligan
1866 suspension of Habeas Corpus by President Abraham Lincoln as constitutional
1873 the 15th and 14th amendments do not guarantee federal protection of individual rights against discrimination by their own state governments-distinction between state citizenship and national citizenship
Munn v. Illinois
1876 upheld the Granger laws. allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders
Plessy v. Ferguson
1896 separate but equal was legal
1901 inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Lochner v. New York
1905 overturns new york law setting 8 hr maximum working hours for bakery workers
Muller v. Oregon
1908 restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
Schenck v. United States
1919 upheld espionage act "clear and present danger"