28 terms

Middle Ages Vocabulary Words

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Medieval
Term that describes the period of western European history known as the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Period of western European history betweent he collapse of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance
Clovis
Became ruler of the Frankish tribes in 481
Charles Martel
Son of Pepin II; defeated Spanish Moors (Muslims) in 732 at the Battle of Tours
Charlemagne
Pepin's son and the greatest of all Frankish kings; rule known as Holy Roman Empire
Vikings
Germanic people from Scandinavia who often raided western Europe during the AD 800s and 900s
Feudalism
Political system of local government based on the granting of land in return for loyalty, military assistance, and other services
Fief
Grant of land given to a vassal from a lord
Vassal
Person granted land from a lord in return for services
Manorialism
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land
Serfs
Peasants who were bound to the land where they worked for a lord
Chivalry
Code of conduct that dictated knights' behavior towards others
Sacraments
Ceremonies at which participants receive God's direct favor, or grace, to ward off the consequences of sin
Cardinals
Catholic officials ranking next below the pope
Monasticism
Way of life in convents and monasteries where nuns and monks withdraw from the world and its temptations
Abbot
Head of a monastery who controlled and distributed all property
Cannon Law
The code of law in the Catholic Church
Heretics
People who denied the truth of the official church's principles of who preached beliefs not approved by the church
Tithe
Church tax collected from Christians in early times that represented one tenth of their income; later became a gift to the church representing one tenth of a person's income
Saint Benedict
Created rule to govern monks lives. Monasteries and covenants adopted these standards, called Benedictine Rule
Saint Patrick
Credited with bringing Christianity to Ireland in 432
Saint augustine
Led a group of Monks to England; Augustine became the Archbishop of CAnterbury, and canterbury became the center of the Christian church in England
Common Law
Law based upon customs and judges' decisions rather than upon written codes
William the Conqueror
Led battle of Hastings in 1066 to overcome Anglo-Saxon resistance
Henry II
Paid soldiers to work for him, therefore they would be more loyal to him and nobles would be. Successor to William I, who ruled from 1154-1189. Introduced "trial by jury" to England, and increased royal authority
Thomas Becket
The Archbishop of Canterbury, who refused to allow his clergy to be tried in royal courts, and was later killed
Magna Carta
Great Charter, English document that made law the supreme power and became a cornerstone of constitutional government
Hugh Capet
King of France. Capet and his descendants, a line known as Capetians, ruled for more than 300 years.