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TCU Contemporary Issues in Environmental Science Final Review
Terms in this set (69)
Where does the bulk of the weather occur?
Where is the mass of the atmosphere?
Troposphere (80% of atmosphere mass)
Where do Green House Gasses occur?
Some occur in nature, while others are exclusively human-made (gasses used for aerosols, burning gas, oil, coal, wood)
Examples of natural Green House Gasses:
Water Vapor, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrous Oxide (CFC's not natural)
Where are most pollutants found?
Where is good ozone found?
Stratosphere "good up high, bad nearby"
What is meridional heat transfer?
Surplus of heat energy is transferred by atmosphere and oceans to higher latitudes.
Why does Meridional heat transfer occur?
Without heat transfer, poles would be 25C colder and the equator would be 14 degrees hotter
What is the great ocean conveyor belt?
Water is in constant motion (winds and gravity that pulls to create the tide).
What does the great ocean conveyor belt do?
Alters the global climate. The conveyor belt transfers warm water from the pacific ocean to the atlantic as a shallow current and returns cold water from the atlantic to the pacific as a deep current that flows further south.
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
What does the NAAQS do?
Designate air quality standards that are safe for various groups of people in areas around the US
Primary air pollutants
Compounds emitted directly into the air. Particulate matter (PM), Carbon monoxide & dioxide, Volatile organic compounds, Nitrogen oxide (NOx), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb)
Secondary air pollutants
Formed in the atmosphere through chemical reactions of primary pollutants (involves sunlight). Ground level ozone (O3), Peroxycetyl nitrate (PAN)
Who were scientists behind stratospheric ozone discovery?
Dobson, Rowland, and Molina
Characteristics that make a species likely to become extinct
Localized range, Extensive range modified by humans, Island dwellers, Large- easily hunted, Low reproductive success
What is species richness?
Number of specific species in a given area
What are hotspots?
Biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.
UN Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation
Water available to people
Less than 1%- Locked away in icecaps, salt water
Variety of all forms of life (from genes to species) through the broad scale of ecosystems.
Carbon Based energy sources
Coal, Natural Gas, Petroleum
Alternative Energy Sources
Wind, sun, nuclear, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass
How are global warming, deforestation, soil loss, and water availability associated?
What is the link between ozone and global climate change?
1. Ozone at the stratospheric level helps filter out UV rays from reaching the earth.
2. Increased ozone depletion leads to more UV rays reaching earth's surface.
3. Global climate change is long term changes not just limited to the temperature.
Human impact on the environment
Genetically Modified Organism
Cross breed to make bigger and better food. Allows more vitamins to be put into foods and higher productivity. Potential human health risks and environmental hazards.
Chlorofluorocarbon (Chlorine, Fluorine, Carbon, Hydrogen)
Carbon dioxide from atmosphere+ water ->Organic matter+ oxygen
6CO2+ 6H2O-> C6H12O6+ 6O2
Evaporation of water from leaves and stem surfaces. (10% of all water evaporation)
Populations, Organic matter, Nutrients
Sunlight, Runoff, Minerals, Soil, Nutrients
Soil make up
Air 25%, Water 25%, Mineral particles 45%, Organic matter 5%
Sand, Silt or Clay
Crust, Compaction, Aggregation and structure, water content, Frozen surface, Organic matter
Greatest depths at tropics and get progressively thinner towards poles
Immediately above troposphere
Can be as great as 12000 C
Can be influenced by Subtropical Jet Stream
19.9% of total mass of atmosphere
80% of mass of atmosphere
Most weather occurs
Little weather occurrence
Lower portion can be influenced by Polar Jet Stream
Third closest to the earth (29-51 miles)
Absorption of solar energy by O2
Second closest- also known as Ozone layer (7-29 miles)
If you have PPO or PPB then you have
Furthest from earth (52+miles)
Maximum temperatures occur nearest the surface of earth
Temperatures at coldest in atmosphere
Closest to earth (0-7 miles)
Slightly slower winds at altitude of 13km in subtropics flowing west-east
Subtropical Jet Stream
110-185kph winds at altitude of 10 km in mid-latitudes flowing west-east
Polar Jet Stream
Temperature drops uniformly with height at 6.5C per 1000 meters
High level thunderstorms can occasionally occur
From burning fuel (motor vehicles), can often be seen as a reddish-brown layer over many urban areas. Also involved in ground-level ozone and acid rain.
Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)
Power plants are the largest single contributor. Dissolves in water vapor to form acid.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
Found naturally in the environment as well as in manufactured products. Highest levels of ___ in the air are generally found near ___ smelters.
Can come from burning of materials or anything generating dust, some are natural (volcanoes). Extremely small particles and liquid droplets. Made up of a number of components including acids (nitrates&sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil particles.
Particulate Matter (PM)
Found/formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. Component of vehicle exhaust. Also comes from industrial processes (metals & chemical manufacturing), wood burning
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Found in Troposphere (lower atmosphere) and Stratosphere.
What units are ozone depletions measured in?
Dobson Units (DU)
the degree to which species are found only in a given place and therefore, have a native local range.
What is the link between water quality, soil, and food production?
Bad soil= decrease in water quality= how we produce our food.
Transport, precipitation, evaporation, condensation, groundwater, infiltration.
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