AP World History Religions, Belief Systems and Philosophies Review
Terms in this set (18)
One God Started in Middle East (6000 years old) Spread through family lines. Temple, Torah, Rabbi, Orthodox, Conservative Reform. Follow the laws of God as put forth in Torah; includes Ten Commandments and hundreds of other laws; purpose of life is to do God's work here; no "promise" of an afterlife - this is it.
0ne God, Jesus Messiah Started in Middle East (2000 years old) as a sect of Judaism Spread through Mediterranean world through missionaries and Roman army and trade Church/Cathedral Bible (Old Testament - Torah + New Testament - Jesus) Priest, Pastor, Minister, Reverend Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant. Follow the laws of God as put forth in the Bible; follow the teachings of Jesus; faith and good works (depends upon denomination) are necessary for afterlife in Heaven.
One God, many prophets (including Jesus) but Muhammad is the most important Started in Middle East (1400 years old) Spread through Mediterranean and Arab world through missionaries, traders, and conquest. Mosque Koran/Quaran Iman, Sunni, Shia. Follow the laws of God and the teachings of Muhammad; adhere to the Five Pillars of Faith; God will judge and those worthy will be rewarded in Heaven others will be punished
.. 6000 years old
.. No single founder
.. Vedas, Upanishadas, and Ramayana are all important texts
.. There are several gods, but one supreme god - Brahma
.. Caste System - reincarnation important to reward or punish past behavior
.. Women were expected to be subservient to men; sati
.. Founded in India in 5th Century BCE
.. Founded by Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
.. Less united than Christianity or Islam
.. Why was it appealing? Opposed caste system and open to women
.. Does not define role of women or obligations of women separate from men
.. Starts in India but spreads along trade routes; most common in China and Japan today
.. Started about 500 BCE by K'ung Fu Tzu (Confucius)
.. Writings deal with morality, ethics, relationships, and proper behavior by rulers
.. Built upon common religious practices in China (so related to religions)
.. Analects of Confucius set up basic practices
.. Everyone has his/her place and should stay there
.. Seeks to find unity in nature
.. Started about 600 BCE by Lao Tzu
.. Mixture of Confucianism, Buddhism, and some Daoism
Mandate of Heaven
concept in Chinese history that the gods anointed the ruler and that he/she is divinely inspired. Kept Chinese from overthrowing their rulers
refers to the various philosophies found in Ancient Greece. These philosophies centered on human achievements. Aristotle is the most significant philosopher (for the APWH exam) and should be noted for his extensive scientific discoveries and observations.
the concept of European rulers that the King's power was absolute. Often accompanied with Divine Right Theory that stressed that God chose the king. Significant absolutists include Louis XIV of France, Peter the Great of Russia, and James I of England.
refers to the philosophy of the Italian Renaissance that glorified human achievements
refers to the era when political and social philosophers (philosophes in French) set out liberal ideas such as freedom of speech, press, and religion and government concepts of social contract theory and the participation of average people in the governmental process. Ideas led to American and French Revolutions
refers to the idea that things should not change; keep the status quo. Became dominant in Europe after the French Revolutions and the Age of Napoleon when leaders wanted to return to the era of decisions being made by a few - the royals and other nobles.
refers to unifying force that binds certain groups of people together. Factors include a common religion, language, heritage, or history. Many times nationalism has led to independence movements from empires and/or imperialist countries
refers to the ideas proposed by Karl Marx that the economic history of the world would end with communism where all property was shared and class struggle would end. Some interpreted Marxism as advocated violence to achieve these ends. During the 20th Century Communism was influential in the Soviet Union, China, Vietnam, North Korea, Cuba, and to a lesser degree in Central America.
refers to the ideas shared by extreme national leaders who believed in nationalism and glorification of the state over the individual. Some forms, such as Nazism, were racist and sought to use violence towards those not included in their definition of nationality. Found in the 20th century in Germany, Italy, Japan, and Spain.
refers to a movement to secure the same political, economic, and social rights for women as exist for men. Major movement in the 20th century in Western nations. Led to women's suffrage in most western countries.7