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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Chapter 16 Reading Guide
Terms in this set (21)
Who was the best-known Christian humanist, and what did he believe?
The best known Christian humanist is Desiderius Erasmus, believed that Christianity should show people how to live good lives, thought if people would read the classics they would become more religious.
Why did Christian humanists call for reform in the Church?
Humanists wanted Church leaders to be more spiritual and less worldly, didn't like the veneration of relics and buying/selling of indulgences, people very critical of the Church.
Who was Martin Luther, and what idea of his became the chief teaching of the Protestant Reformation?
Martin Luther was a Catholic monk and professor, believed human beings were powerless in the sight of God, idea of salvation by faith was the chief teaching of the Protestant Reformation.
Where and when did Martin Luther issue his Ninety-five Theses?
He issued his Ninety-five Theses on October 31, 1517, in Wittenberg, Germany. He is said he, "have nailed them to the door of the Castle Church there." He was attacking the sale of indulgences too.
Why was Luther made an outlaw within the Holy Roman Empire?
He was made an outlaw and excommunicated because he wanted to overthrow the papacy, attack the Church's system of sacraments, and promote salvation through only faith.
What was the first Protestant faith?
Lutheranism, Luther's doctrine became the first Protestant faith, called on the German princess to overthrow the papacy in Germany, establish a recreated German Church, called for clergy to marry the princess.
Why did Charles V oppose the Reformation?
Charles V wanted to keep the empire united and under the control of his dynasty, felt the Reformation would disrupt the political and social order of it.
Who offered opposition to the rule of Charles V?
Francis I, the king of France. Charles faced resistance from the Lutheran princes in Germany, and the Ottoman Turks.
How and when did the end to religious warfare in Germany come, and what did this mean for Christianity?
The end to religious warfare in Germany came in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg, agreement accepted the division of Christianity in Germany, Germans were now free to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism.
What factors combined to foster a religious reformation in Europe?
Christian humanism's goal to reform the Catholic Church; Martin Luther's criticism of the Church's corrupt and worldly practices; the rise of Lutheranism; the political struggles of Charles V.
The Swiss priest Ulrich Zwingli introduced Protestant reforms in the city of __________________ and wanted an alliance with __________________ .
Zurich, Martin Luther
John Calvin emphasized the idea of __________________ , which gave later Calvinists the belief that they were doing God's work on Earth.
The __________________ of 1534 declared that King
__________________ was "the only supreme head on earth of the [new] Church of England."
Act of Supremacy, Henry VII
In an effort to restore __________________ to England, Queen Mary I had
almost 300 __________________ burned as heretics.
Roman Catholicism, protestants
Anabaptists, who considered all believers to be __________________ ,
called for the complete __________________ of church and state.
Protestant teachers used __________________ methods, and Martin
Luther believed that the __________________ should pay for education.
Women's duties in marriage included bearing children and being obedient to their __________________ .
Some features of society were not changed; __________________ , or
discrimination against Jews, continued.
Two new religious orders included: the __________________ and the
__________________ , who took vows of complete poverty.
In the year __________________ , the Pope called the __________________ , which defined Catholic doctrine.
1545, Council of Trent
How did the Reformation and Catholic Reformation affect European life and thought?
the emergence of different forms of Protestantism; Calvin's idea of predestination; King Henry VIII's control over the new Church of England; the Anabaptists' belief in separation of church and state; new religious orders, papal reform, and the restatement of traditional Catholicism in the Council of Trent.
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