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Any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, good, service, or idea by an identified sponsor

all-you-can-afford budgeting

allocating funds to promotion only after all other budget items are covered

channel of communication

the means (a salesperson, advertising media, or public relations tools) of conveying a message to a receiver during the communication process


process of conveying a message to others and requires six elements: a source, a message, a channel of communication, a receiver, and the processes of encoding and decoding.

competitive parity budgeting

Allocating funds to promotion by matching the competitors absolute level of spending or the proportion per point of market share. Also called matching competitors or share of market.


the process of having the receiver take a set of symbols, the message, and transform them back to an idea during the communication process

direct marketing

a promotion alternative that uses direct communication with consumers to generate a response in the form of an order, a request for further information, or a visit to a retail outlet

direct orders

the result of direct marketing offers that contain all the information necessary for a prospective buyer to make a decision to purchase and complete the transaction


process of having the sender transform an idea into a set of symbols during the communication process


in the feedback loop, the sender's interpretation of the response, which indicates whether a message was decoded and understood as intended during the communication process

field of experience

a mutually shared understanding and knowledge that the sender and receiver apply to a message so that it can be communicated effectively during the communication process

hierarchy of effects

the sequence of stages a prospective buyer goes through from initial awareness of a product to eventual action (either trial or adoption of the product). The stages include awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption

integrated marketing communications (IMC)

Concept of designing marketing communications programs that coordinate all promotional activities--- advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing--- to provide a consistent message across all audiences.

lead generation

the result of a direct marketing offer designed to generate interest in a product or service and a request for additional information


the information sent by a source to a receiver during the communication process


extraneous factors that can work against effective communication by distorting a message or the feedback received during the communication process

objective and task budgeting

allocating funds to promotion whereby the company: (1) determines its promotion objectives; (2) outlines the tasks to accomplish these objectives; and (3) determines the promotion cost of performing these tasks

percentage of sales budgeting

allocating funds to promotion as a percentage of past or anticipated sales, in terms of either dollars or units sold

personal selling

the two-way flow of communication between a buyer and seller, often in a face-to-face encounter, designed to influence a person's or group's purchase decision

promotional mix

the combination of one or more communication tools used to: (1) inform prospective buyers about the benefits of the product, (2) persuade them to try it, and (3) remind them later about the benefits they enjoyed by using the product

public relations

a form of communication management that seeks to influence the feelings, opinions, or beliefs held by customers, prospective customers, stockholders, suppliers, employees, and other publics about a company and its products or services


a nonpersonal, indirectly paid presentation of an organization, good, or service

pull strategy

directing the promotional mix at ultimate consumers to encourage them to ask the retailer for a product

push strategy

directing the promotional mix to channel members to gain their cooperation in ordering and stocking the product


consumers who read, hear, or see the message sent by a source during the communication process


in the feedback loop, the impact the message had on the receiver's knowledge, attitudes, or behaviors during the communication process

sales promotion

a short-term inducement of value offered to arouse interest in buying a good or service


a company or person who has information to convey during the communication process

traffic generation

the outcome of a direct marketing offer designed to motivate people to visit a business

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