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Life Span Final Ch 14-18
Terms in this set (156)
The sense that there is a proper schedule for the major milestones in one's life has been referred to as the ______.
During Erickson's intimacy-versus-isolation stage, the focus is on _____.
developing close, intimate relationships with others
According to Elaine Hatfield and Ellen Berscheid, two people experience romantic love when intense arousal combines with situational cues to indicate that what is being felt is love. This is the ______________ theory of passionate love.
The tendency of people to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, religion, and other basic demographic characteristics is called _______.
Attachment styles during infancy are related to ______.
adult romantic relationships
Most marriages today follow a period of living together, called ________.
One characteristic displayed by partners in successful marriages is that they ______.
routinely show their affection openly
Even when marital partners are committed to sharing household chores equitably, woman's chores tend to ________.
require immediate or urgent attention.
Which of the following is true of homosexual households, compared with heterosexual households?
-children are better socialized and adjusted
-labor in the household is more equally divided
- parental roles are less specializes between partners
-there is less open conflict between partners
labor in the household is more equally divided
One advantage of singlehood is
Young adults become centered on their careers during
the career consolidation stage
According to Eli Ginzberg, in proceeding from adolescence to young adulthood, people move from the ________ period of career choice to the _________ period.
Traditionally, woman have been considered most suitable for _______ professions, in which relationships are important.
To what does the term glass ceiling refer?
the invisible barrier that restricts job advancement
The desire to obtain personal satisfaction from one's job rather than concrete rewards is called _______.
Compared to the social clocks of people living before 1950, today's social clocks are more ______.
According to Erikson, young adults are in the _________ stage, focusing unbuilding close personal relationships with others.
According to Sternberg's triangular theory, a couple that remains in a marriage only for the sake of the children, even though the relationship lacks both intimacy and passion, is an example of _______ love.
Homogamy is the tendency of people to marry others with similar ______ characteristics.
According to research on infants' attachment styles, those with a(n) ________ attachment style are likely to find it relatively easy to get close to others during adulthood.
Women who cohabit with men are more likely than men to view this arrangement as ______________.
practice for marriage
About what percent of marriages in the United States end in divorce?
Couples who most successfully manage the shift from childlessness to having children are those who ______________.
are realistic about the challenges of childrearing
The change in the relationship between homosexual partners when children arrive in the family is ________.
similar to what happens in heterosexual couples
One disadvantage of single hood is ______.
diminished long-term security
According to George Vaillant, during the career consolidation stage, ________.
-people tend to be overly influenced by their parents' authority in their 20s
-people tend to act with greater autonomy once they are in their 20s and early 30s
-career concerns become more of a focus than intimacy
all of these
According to John Holland, risk-takers and taking-charge types suitable for careers as managers or politicians are examples of the _______ personality types.
Traditionally, women were considered unsuitable for ______ professions, associated with getting things accomplished.
The invisible barrier in an organization that prevents individuals from advancement beyond a certain level is called the _________.
Intrinsic motivation for working drives people to seek _______ from their jobs.
__________, in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin, is often caused by the lack of calcium in the diet.
_________, which occurs when pressure in the fluid in the eye increases, is a serious disease that can lead to blindness.
A decline in the ability to hear high-pitched, high-frequency sounds is called _______.
During middle age, reaction time tends to _______.
increase but not at the same rate for all activities
Menopause is defined as the cessation of _________.
Compared to women, men in middle adulthood are more likely to experience ______.
more serious, life-threatening illnesses
According to current research, which of the following is a consequence of stress?
Decreased compliance with medical advice
The Type A behavior patter is characterized by _______.
Five years after being diagnosed with cancer, approximately ________ percent of people are still alive.
One psychological characteristic in patients that appears to have a positive effect on cancer treatment is ________.
The ability to rely on accumulated experience to help solve problems, such as solving a crossword puzzle, is called _________ intelligence.
The process by which people in middle adulthood concentrate on particular skill areas to compensate for declines in other areas is called __________.
In contrast to beginners, experts tend to _________.
process information automatically without conscious thought
Which of the following statements about the effects of aging on memory in middle age is true ?
- sensory memory remains unchanged while short- and long-term memory decline.
-short-term memory improves, but sensory and long-term memory weaken.
- sensory memory begins to decline while short- and long-term memory hold steady
-sensory and short-term memory hold steady, but long-term memory declines slightly.
sensory and short-term memory hold steady, but long-term memory declines slightly.
Organized bodies of information stored in memory that help people categorize and interpret new information are called _________.
Osteoporosis, in which the bones become brittle, fragile, and thin, is often caused by a lack if ________ in the diet.
The universal decline in near the middle adulthood is called ________.
The key symptom of presbycusis, which is common in middle adulthood, is _________.
a decline in the ability to hear high-pitched sounds
Middle-aged drivers have fewer accidents than younger ones. Why?
Middle-aged drivers have more practice driving than younger ones.
Which of the following is true about sexuality in middle adulthood?
-while the frequency of sex decreases slightly, enjoyment and sexual freedom may increase.
-because of physical changes in men, sexual appetite usually declines sharply.
-while the production of estrogen in women declines, the production of testosterone in men increase.
- because of physical changes in women, sexual activity becomes increasingly painful.
while the frequency of sex decreases slightly, enjoyment and sexual freedom may increase.
Compared to men, women in middle adulthood are more likely to experience _________.
According to current research, which of the following is a consequence of stress?
elevated blood pressure
The Type B behavior pattern is characterized by ________.
Among causes of death in the United States, cancer ranks number _______.
In medicine the term false positive refers to _________.
test results that erroneously find something wrong
The use of information processing abilities, reasoning, and memory to solve novel problems is called _________ intelligence.
Selective optimization, which adults increasingly use in middle age, is the process by which people _________.
use areas of cognitive strength to compensate for declines in other areas
The acquisition of skill or knowledge in a particular area, which develops with practice, is called _________.
The growing inability of people to retrieve stored information is the result of decline processes of ________ memory.
Which of the following is an example of a memory schema?
-Recalling the color of the dress that you partner wore on a recent date
-working out a winning strategy for a game you enjoy playing
-finding the answer to a challenging crossword puzzle clue
-picturing what will happen during an upcoming job interview
picturing what will happen during an upcoming job interview
The view that personality develops in fairly universal stages, tied to a sequence of age-related crises, is known as the ________.
Which developmentalist, reacting to Erikson's views, identified seven stages through which people pass, including an urgent need in middle adulthood to achieve one's life goals before the end?
According to Daniel Levinson, people in their forties move into a period called the midlife transition, during which they often __________.
question their fundamental assumptions
The "Big Five" personality traits are important to developmentalists because they represent ___________.
clusters of highly stable personality characteristics
A highly organized worker whose strong sense of responsibility causes her never to miss a deadline is likely to be high in which personality trait?
Compared to younger couples entering first marriages, older couples who remarry tend to be more _________.
flexible and open to compromise
The term helicopter parents refers to parents who _____________.
constantly intervene inter children's lives
The main reason that young adults become boomerang children is ________.
inability to earn enough mosey to make it alone
Adults who are actively engaged in taking care of their grandchildren are called _________ grandparents.
The belief that abuse and neglect predispose children to be abusive as adults is called the ______________.
In contrast with younger adults, older adults often look for _________ in their work.
favorable work and pay policies
The phenomenon of burnout most often affects people _______.
in jobs that involve helping people
Loss of employment is especially devastating to an older adult because older adults ______________.
Face discrimination in seeking reemployment
Which of the following is a major reason why people often voluntarily change careers in middle adulthood?
-to seek a job with less interpersonal contact
-to escape a job that technology has made difficult
-to find a job that offers less of a challenge
-to make a fresh start and try to accomplish more
to make a fresh start and try to accomplish more
In general, people who retire early __________.
feel that they have made the right decision
The _________ model suggests that it is the particular events in an adult's life, rather than age per se, that determines the course of personality development.
Erikson's stages of adult development are examples of a ___________ model of development.
According to Daniel Levinson, adults in their forties may experience a ________ of uncertainty and indecision as they realize that their time on earth is finite.
A person's level of curiosity and interest in new experiences is called __________, one of the "Big Five" personality traits.
Alec is prone to mood swings and anxiety. He is never satisfied with his work and seems constantly unhappy. He is probably high in which personality trait?
Which of the following factors has contributed to the rise in the divorce rate among midlife couples?
The social stigma of divorce has lessened
Which of the following statements about empty nest syndrome is true?
feeling sadness and distress are temporary and mild.
Middle adults who are required to care for children and aging parents simultaneously are known as ____________.
the sandwich generation
Alex's grandparents act as supporters and buddies to Alex, but don't care for him on a regular basis. They would be called ______________ grandparents.
According to the cycle of violence hypothesis, abused and neglected children ____________.
are predisposed to be abusive as adults
An abusive husband who expresses remorse for his actions and apologizes to his wife, swearing that he will never act violently again, is in what is called the ______________ stage of marital aggression.
Workers who experience dissatisfaction, disillusionment, frustration, and weariness from their jobs are likely to be suffering from ______________.
Compared to younger workers who lose their jobs, older workers tend to _____________.
stay unemployed longer
one frequently cited reason that people in middle adulthood voluntarily change careers is _________.
to find a job with more variety and opportunity
Middle-aged people repot having more free time than they did several decades ago. How do they perceive this grater free time?
they don't have the sense that they have more free time even though objectively they do.
Which of the following is most likely an example of ageism?
- a younger man offers to to hold the grocery bag of an older man fishing for his car keys
- a police officer insists on a vision test for an older man pulled over for a broken taillight
-a younger woman asks an older woman squinting at an airline schedule if she needs help
-a younger woman offers to help an older woman solve a difficult crossword clue
a police officer insists on a vision test for an older man pulled over for a broken taillight
The term primary aging refers to physical and cognitive changes due to ______.
the biological passage of time
The reduced flow of blood to the brain in older people is primarily due to _________.
the lower pumping capacity of the heart
The theory that suggests that slowing reaction time is attributable to changes in all parts of the nervous system, including the brain, is called the _________ hypothesis.
Which sensory decline is likely to have the most negative effect on the social lives of older people?
About one-third of older people have ________, or high blood pressure.
The goal of most professionals is not only to extend the life span of older adults but to expand the __________.
active life span
The most common sexual practice of late adulthood is ___________.
Evidence for the ________ theory of agin is the finding that human cells can only divide successfully around 50 times.
What advance has led to the possibility of a longer life span?
-reducing dress radicals through antioxidant drugs
unlocking longevity genes
all of the above
K. Warner Schaie has used _________ studies, which examine several different age groups at a number of points in time, to provide the most recent and informative conclusions about changes in intelligence across different ages.
Age-related memory declines are mostly limited to ________ memories, while ________ memories are largely unaffected by age.
The _______ of autobiographical memory holds that people tend to recall pleasant memories more readily than unpleasant ones.
The idea that memory declines may be due to changes in the ability to pay attention to and organize tasks involving memory is an example of a(n) ___________ that may affect memory.
information processing deficit
what statement best describes the use of technology by older adults?
People in late adulthood are increasingly embracing and using technology
prejudice and discrimination directed at older people is called __________.
Physical and cognitive changes in an individual that are due to illness or health habits are referred to as ___________ aging.
One lifestyle factor that has been shown to be effective in slowing the changes associated with aging is ____________.
According to the peripheral slowing hypothesis, the increased reaction time of older people is attributable to changes in all the ___________.
nerves that branch from the brain and spinal cord
Which eye disease is caused by changes in the physical apparatus of the eye in older people?
_______________, which combines dealing memory, lessened intellectual abilities, and impaired judgement, is the most common mental disorder among older people.
The cumulative cost of medial care during late adulthood is now put as about _________ for the average 65-year-old couple.
One of the major determinants of whether older people will engage in sexual activity is ____________.
precious regular sexual activity
Research suggesting that free radicals may cause negative effects on other body cells can be used as evidence for a _________ throes of aging.
________ are the tiny areas at the tip of chromosomes that grow shorter each time a cell divides and eventually disappear, ending cell replication.
To research intellectual changes, K. Warner Schaie has used sequential studies, which examine __________.
different same-age group over several years
While the store of information, skills, and strategies that people have acquired during life holds steady, the ability to deal with new problems and situations, called _________ intelligence, declines with age.
Which of the following cultural factors has been found to play a role in delaying intellectual decline?
Marriage to an intelligent spouse
Memories about which people are generally unaware, such as how to ride a bike, are called ______ memories.
_________ is a well-known program that provides educational programs for older adults.
According to Erikson, elderly people who are successful in the last stage of psychosocial development experience a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment, which Erikson terms ___________.
According to Robert Peck, people in late adulthood who learn to cope with and move beyond the physical changes of old age have achieved ____________.
According to age stratification theories, elderly people in industrialized societies are likely to have more ________ than elderly people in less industrialized societies.
separation from younger people
_______ is expert knowledge in the practical aspects of life.
According to ___________ theory, elderly people begin a process of withdrawal from the world around them.
Approximately what percentage of people over 65 live with other members of their family?
An institution that provides elderly residents with various levels of care over the remainder of their lives, from separate apartments to full-time medical care, is called a ___________.
Elderly nursing home residents are likely to avoid institutionalism, a psychological apathy about their lives, if they have ____________.
control over key aspects of daily life
Approximately what percent people in the United States over age 65 are living in poverty?
The phase of retirement in which retirees consider their options and become engaged in new, more fulfilling activities is known as the ___________ stage.
Women who divorce late in life generally fare _____________.
worse, because the marriage gradient makes remarriage unlikely
In the _____________ stage of adjustment to the death of a spouse, the widowed person accepts the loss and starts a new life.
One type of assistance that is usually provided by social support to a person in late adulthood is ___________.
advice from people with similar concerns
In general, relations between elder parents and their adult children are _________.
cordial and mutually beneficial
Elder abuse is caused by _______.
a combination of economic, psychological, and social pressures on caregivers
According to Erikson, people in late adulthood move into the __________ stage, the last stage of psychosocial development.
_____________ theories that economic resources, power, and privilege are distributed unequally among people at different stages of the life course.
Wisdom is defined as ____.
expert knowledge in the practical aspects of life.
The theory that suggests that successful aging occurs when people maintain the interests and activities they pursued during middle age and resist any decrease in the amount and type of social interaction they have with others is known as ___________.
Approximately what percent of elderly people end up in long-term are facilities?
An institution that provides elderly people with care for part of the day, but not evenings or weekends, is called a __________.
adult day-care facility
A psychological state in which people living in a nursing home develop apathy and a lack of caring about themselves is referred to as ______________.
Compared to elderly men, elderly women are ______ likely to live in poverty?
The phase of retirement in which retirees conclude that retirement is not all they thought it would be is known as the _____________ stage.
Spouses who are forced to become caregivers for an ailing spouse generally __________.
are less satisfied with life than non-caregivers
In the _________ stage of adjustment of the death of a spouse, the widowed person experienced shock and pain at the loss.
grief and mourning
Which of the following makes friendships particularly important during late adulthood?
the increasing likelihood that people will have no marital partner
Compared with friendships in old age, family relationships usually _________.
suffer more from past baggage and conflicts
The physical and psychological mistreatment of neglect of elderly persons is called __________.
14.5: Consider a long-term marriage which you are familiar. Do you think the relationship involves passionate love or compassionate love (or both)? What changes when a relationship moves from a passionate to compassionate love? From compassionate to passionate love? In which direction is is more difficult for a relationship to move? Why?
A long-term marriage that I am familiar with would consist of both compassionate and passionate love. The changes a relationship makes when you move from passionate to companionate love are not being so absorbed in someone and having that intense physiological interest in them but still care for that person. When moving from companionate to passionate love you have strong affection for someone, then those feelings turn into an intense interest. Moving from passionate to companionate love is a more difficult direction of love because its "falling out of love" with someone. You don't have as strong of a connection.
14.9: In what ways do you think cognitive changes in early adulthood (e.g., the emergence of post formal thought and practical intelligence) affect how young adults deal with questions of marriage, divorce, and childrearing?
The cognitive changes that are being made are helping them make more realistic choices for themselves and to rule out all of the possibilities of things happening.
14.13: If Vaillant's study where performed today on women, in what ways do you think the results would be similar to or different from those of the original study?
If Vaillant's study were to preform his study today on on woman I believe the results would turn out to be different than that they were in 1930. First, his study then was only based off of men. We aren't sure how the results would differ in woman. One thing that I would find to be similar is in their late 20s, woman begin to marry and have children just like men do.
15.4: Would you rather fly on an airplane with a middle-aged pilot or a young one? Why?
I would rather fly on an airplane with a middle-aged pilot because although their reaction time decreases there are very valuable things that make up for it. Such as an increase in care and expertise and they have a decrease in risk-taking. If I were to get in a plane with a young pilot they would be the ones taking more risks and putting my life and their own in danger.
15.7: What social policies might be de
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