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The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally.


a doctrine urging the abolition of government or governmental restraint as the indispensable condition for full social and political liberty


hatred, prejudice, oppression, or discrimination against Jews or Judaism.


an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit


Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.


a political system characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government


a belief that limited government ensures order, competitive governments, and personal opportunity


An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.


The belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny.

enlightened despotism

Believed in religious tolerance, economic and legal reforms, and using their power for the good of the people. They were absolute rulers.


a philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions.


A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.


an artistic movement in Italy around 1910 that tried to express the energy and values of the machine age


a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements


The practice of seeing or representing things in ideal form rather than as they usually exist in real life.


A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.


An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing


giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications


belief in the value of strong government to provide economic secruity and protection for civil rights, combined with a belief in personal freedom from government intervention in social conduct


the political, economic, and social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, a classless society - Communism.


preoccupation with physical comforts and things; excessive regard for worldly concerns (rather than spiritual matters)


an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought


a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.


(philosophy) the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms without recourse to spiritual or supernatural explanations


a belief that rejects all moral or religious values; the belief that the destruction of political or social institutions is necessary for future improvement


nationalist movement pressed for the political and cultural unity of all Slavs under Russian leadership


the form of empiricism that bases all knowledge on perceptual experience (not on intuition or revelation)


This was the new style of literature that focused on the daily lives and adventures of a common person. This style was a response to Romanticism's supernaturalism and over-emphasis on emotion


a belief that rapid, dramatic changes need to be made in the existing society, often including the political system


the belief that nothing is universally true. Instead everything is relative. Your understanding of things is based on circumstances.


A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.


This was the response to the Enlightenment in which they believed that not everything could be measured, because of the passion of emotion

social darwinism

members of a species constantly compete to survive; applied survival of the fittest and natural selection to economics, war, the races


A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.


describes a government that takes total, centralized, state control over every aspect of public and private life


Jeremy Bentham's idea that "the greater good for the greatest number" led to running water through England and the world.


Herzel, jewish nationalist movement that aimed to build a homeland for the jews in palestine

classical liberalism

foundation is Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations," bourgeois, the government should only protect borders,currency,and rights, the market place solves public ills


a Marxist who rejected the revolutionary approach, believing instead in evolution by democratic means to achieve the goal of socialism.


An artistic movement that displayed vivid dream worlds and fantastic unreal images


An artistic movement that had a purposely nonsensical name, expressing its total rejection of previous modern art.


emphasizes the life of the mind and feelings rather than the realistic external details of everyday life


Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Believed in pre-destination. strong moral code. supported constitutional representative government and seperate of church and state

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