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BIOL 1002 Ch. 39
Terms in this set (24)
1. neurons- receive, process, and transmit information and control body movements
2. glia- assist neuronal function by providing nutrients, regulating the composition of interstitial fluid that bathes the neurons, and protecting against infection; help repair damage, fine-tune communication, and speed up electrical signals
What are 2 principle cell types in nervous system?
1. dendrites- receive information from other neurons and the environment
2. cell body- process information and produce electrical signals
3. axon- conduct signals over distances to a junction where it meets another cell
4. synaptic terminals- transmit information to other neurons, muscles, or glands
What 4 structures do neurons typically have and what are their main functions?
receive information; branched tendrils protruding from the cell body that perform the "receive information" function
processes signals from dendrites
conducts action potentials long distances; bundles together in nerves
signals are transmitted from one cell to another
1. synaptic terminal
3. small gap separating the two cells
What does a typical synapse consist of?
Information is carried within a neuron by electrical signals and is transmitted between neurons by neurotransmitters
How do neurons produce and transmit information?
covers axons to speed up action potentials
tiny gap that separates the sending presynaptic neuron from the receiving postsynaptic neuron
1. sensory neurons- respond to stimuli from inside or outside the body
2. interneurons- receive signals from sensory neurons, hormones, and neurons that store memories
3. motor neurons- receive instructions from sensory neurons or interneurons and activate muscles/glands
4. effectors- usually muscles; perform the response
What 4 elements affect processing information and controlling behavior?
central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
neurons and axons outside the CNS; links CNS to rest of the body
What are the 3 major axons in the PNS?
somatic nervous system
skeletal muscles and voluntary movement
autonomic nervous system
heart, smooth muscles, glands, and involuntary actions
1. skull and vertebrae
3. cerebrospinal fluid
What are 3 ways the brain and spinal cord are protected?
protects brain from chemicals
1. hind brain- autonomic functions
2. midbrain- vision
3. forebrain- smell
What are the 3 main parts of the brain?
1. medulla and pons- autonomic functions like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, etc.
2. cerebellum- movements
What parts are in the hindbrain?
1. hypothalamus- hormones
2. hippocampi- pair; long-term memory
What parts are in the forebrain?
diverse group of forebrain structures; emotions and memories
pleasure, fear, sexual arousal
short term and long term memory
What are the 2 learning phases?
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