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HMSA Unit 3 Cell Specialization
HMSA Unit Vocab for 2020-21
Terms in this set (52)
How do multi cellular organisms start out?
-They start as a single cell organism called zygote, and as they grow, they become specialized.
-They can do a specific job
What does it mean to be specialized? How are multi cellular organisms specialized?
Specialized means to learn/do something specific. Cells of multi cellular organisms are specialized and based on what organelle they are made in and are in what their abilities are.
What does differentiation mean?
Differentiation means that stem cells develop into specialized stem cells
What determines the function of a cell?
Cells are modified to perform a specific function by changing their shape, structure and internal makeup
How do the cells of unicellular organisms compare to multi cellular organisms?
-Unicellular organisms tens to be fairly generalized when some organelle specialization to carry all the functions for the organism
-Multi cellular organisms have cellular specialization. They are more specialized with cells to carry out some functions for the whole organism.
What are the levels of organization in a multi cellular organism?
cells--> specialized tissue --> organ--> organ system--> organism
What are Embryonic stem cells?
The first and the first few hundred cells that come after sexual reproduction
What does Totipotent mean?
The cells have the potential to become any cell in the body. They give rise to any and all human cells.- brain, liver, blood, or heart cells
What causes cells to develop differently?
Genetic switches and chemical changes in the cell cause them to develop differently
How do differentiated cells compare to stem cells?
Stem cells have the potential (haven't been changed)- move potential to become other cells. Differentiated cells have limited ability- they can only be that one thing
What is the advantage of having cells in a multi cellular organism?
Specialized cells carry out different functions. One advantage is that specialized cells allows the organism to grow bigger. IN the larger organisms, it is difficult to transport material
How does a single cell from a fertilized egg become specialized?
1. They go through cell division
2. They then turn into specialized tissue and start to form an organ system
3. The cells become differentiated and perform different tasks
*The genetic switches and chemical changes in the cell cause them to develop differently
What are the 4 ways we can get stem cells?
1. Therapeutic cloning
2. In Vitro fertilization (IVP)
3. Umbilical cord blood/bone marrow transplantation
4. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
-The nucleus of a donated stem cell is removed and the patient's somatic nucleus from a cell is inserted. Then, after receiving electric signals to stimulate it, the egg then behaves as if it has been fertilized and begins to divide. The inner mass is removed and grown in the lab.
-Origin of stem cell- embryonic
-Controversy: Donors don't get paid, child could die, costs a lot of money to be done
In Vitro fertilization (IVF)
Women given fertility meds that regulate several mature eggs at a time, which are put in a petri dish. They grow into a biastula stage. They can be placed into the uterus, frozen for future, or used for research.
-Origin of stem cell: embryonic
-controversy: destroys embryo, doesn't always work, expensive
Umbilical cord blood/ bone marrow transplantation
First, a patient's disease cells are usually destroyed or removed through chemo or radiation. Healthy cells from either a genetically matched bone marrow donor or an umbilical cord donor are then given through the central venous catheter into the bloodstream
-Origin of stem cell: adult stem cell
-Controversy: Has to depend on the donor's blood type, all cancerous cells have to be destroyed, procedure costs $1,000
Induced Pluripotent (iPS)
Four or more master regulator genes are inserted into the DNA of an adult such as a fibroblast. These genes are like a reset button, making the cell into a "blank" state
-Origin of stem cell: adult cells
-Controversy: retroviruses have been used in the past, however, they tend to be problematic because the inserted genes are spliced into the DNA at random places and can cause tumors
What is the function of blood? (3 things)
-Transportation- respiration, transports hormones
-Regulation-adjusts and maintains body temperature
-Protection- reservoir for substances like water
Where are blood cells manufactured?
-They are formed in the bone marrow through hematopoises
How are blood cells recycled?
-The liver and the spline (acts like a filter) remove white blood cells
-They remove cellular residues, particulate matter, and other abnormal cells from the blood stream
What is blood plasma made of?
Mostly water and dissolved electrolytes
What is the function of plasma?
-helps regulate body temperature
-transports blood cells, products of digestion and hormones throughout the body
What are the formed elements of the blood?
-Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
-White blood cells
Describe the structure and function of Red Blood Cells?
-flat bi-concave disks that contain hemoglobin which allows them to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from lungs and tissues
What are the structures and functions of white blood cells?
-live longer than red blood cells* has nucleus
-part of the immune defense against bacteria, viruses and allergens
-Leukocytes are larger and have a nucleus
-can leave the blood stream and patrol interstitial fluid and the lymphatic system
What are the 2 types of white blood cells? What are their functions?
-Granulocytes- have vesicles that help with immune responses
-Agranulocytes- lack digestive vesicles and have more regular nuclei
What are the functions of platelets?
-small irregularly shaped cell fragments formed from large cells located in bone marrow
-one drop of blood can contain up to 500,000 platelets
-lives 2-4 years
-involved in clotting of blood
What are similarities between white and red blood cells?
-can flow into the blood stream
-made in marrow from blood cells
-start out with nucleus
What is the basis for blood typing?
They come from surface protein markers on the blood
-(antigens) found on the red blood cells
What is the difference between an antibody and an antigen?
Antibodies are made to attack foreign antigens
What is agglutination
-when antibodies attack foreign antigens, clumping (agglutination) results
-can clog blood vessels and stops the circulation of the blood
What happens when a patient receives the wrong blood type?
It clumps up and can clog a vessel, or can poison the person
Which blood type is the universal donor? why?
-blood type O because it doesn't fight any antibodies that would attack
-It doesn't have any antigens
Which blood type is the universal recipient? Why?
-Blood type AB because they have no antibodies in the plasma, so they don't fight antigens
What is RH factor How was it discovered?
-The rhesus factor was discovered by looking at a monkey -injecting blood to see how it would react.
-another antigen on the surface of a red blood cell
-if the red blood cell has the RH, then the blood type is positive
- RH cannot give negative, but it can become negative
How does RH factor influence transfusion?
-HR+ can give to other positives, but not negatives, and RH- can give to any type
-only RH- receive from other RH-
What is RH incompatibility?
it is an issue in certain pregnancies in which the mother may develop antibodies to an Rh+ fetus which later affects other pregnancies (mother will develop antibodies and destroy red blood cells in the fetus)
-If the mom is - and the baby is + they are incompatible, and the antibodies could attack the antigens of the baby.
If Maria is (B+) and her brother Jacob is (B-), can Jacob receive Maria's blood in the event of an emergency?
Jacob cannot receive Maria's blood in the event of an emergency because negative blood types can't receive positive blood types. Since Jacob is a negative, and Maria is a positive they are not compatible. This could lead to Jacob getting poisoned and then die. Maria's antibodies would attack Jacob's antigens
If Maria is (B+) and her brother Jacob is (B-), can Maria receive Jacob's blood in the event of an emergency?
Maria can receive Jacob's blood in the event of an emergency because Jacob can give his blood to anyone. Since Maria is a positive, she is compatible with Jacob's blood which is negative. Maria will not have any problems if she receives Jacob's blood. There are no antigens on Maria's blood for it to react with Jacob's blood
What is Hemostasis?
The stopping of blood
What is the opposite of hemostasis?
hemorrage (the blood continues)
Describe the steps in forming a blood clot
1. Vasoconstriction (vessel spasm)
2. formation of the platelet plug (platelets get sticky)
3. coagulation (clotting factors/fibrin activation)
4. the white/red excessive blood cells get stuck and help block
The platelets are activated when they come in contact with the cologyn fibers
What are some issues with clot formation?
-too much or little clotting
- over clotting at the wrong time (embolism)
-our bodies control this by producing anti-coagulation factors and clot dissolving chemicals (thrombolytic)
-taking certain medications can cause too little clotting
-low vitamin k
Describe the first aid for a closed wound
-putting on ice packs- decreases bleeding beneath the skin
- severe brushing/internal bleeding: call 911, care for shock, if vomiting occurs roll victim onto his/her side
What are the types of external bleeding?
1. capillary (oozing)
2. venous (flowing)
3. arterial (spurting)
What is the first aid for minor external bleeding?
A= alert (call 911)
B=Bleeding (find injury)
C=compress- apply pressure to wound
wear gloves, wash with soap and water, flush with water, apply antibiotic ointment, cover-seek medical if infectious
What is the first aid for more serious external bleeding?
-wear gloves if available
-expose wound and cover with clean cloth or gauze
-apply direct pressure
-bleeding from arm or leg, use a trauma first aid kit if available, apply a tourniquet (causes pain)
-if no kit, pack wound and hold pressure until medical care arrives
What is vasoconstriction?
-the first thing that happens when a blood vessel is torn
-the walls of the blood vessel contract
-the purpose of this phenomenon is to slow the bleeding and lesson the travel of blood near the cut
What substance do the platelets come in contact with that makes them sticky?
what two substances do platelets secrete after forming a platelet plug?
1. clotting factors
Why can't thrombin be active in regular blood circulation? what happens if it was?
It can't be active in a regular blood circulation because it would cause the blood to over clot. The person could die of a stroke
what is the final product in clot formation?
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