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AP Psychology Chapter 4 & 5
Terms in this set (65)
Detecting physical energy from the environment and encoding it as neural signals
Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
Selecting, organizing, and interpreting what comes in your window as meaningful objects and events.
Guided by higher level mental processes, such as experience, motivation, and expectations
The study of how physical energy relates to our psychological experience
Conversion of one form of energy into another
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
The minimum difference a person can detect between any 2 stimuli 50% of the time
A small adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil's opening
Protects the eye and bends light to provide focus
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus objects on the retina
Light sensitive inner surface of the eye containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye
No receptor cells
Brain fills the "hole" without permission
The central focal point in the retina
Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and grey
Necessary for peripheral vision
Retinal receptors that are concentrated near the center of the retina
Detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision
The eye has 3 types of color receptors (red, green, and blue)
Cones work in 3's
Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision
Certain neurons can be either excited or inhibited depending on the wavelength of light
Complementary wavelengths have opposite effects.
Measured in Hz (Hertz)
Transduction in the Ear
Vibration/mechanical energy -> neural impulses
Bent by the vibrations and transduce mechanical energy to neural impulses
In the cochlea
The theory that the rate of nerve impulses travelling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a sound
The theory that links pitch with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.
Gate Control Theory of Pain
The spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass onto the brain
Emphasize the tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
Figure Ground Relationship
The organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings
If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer
The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
The sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
The process by which we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it as neural signals is...
The process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted is...
Sensory analysis, which starts at the entry level and works up, is called...
Perceptual analysis, which works from our experience and expectations, is called...
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them is...
absolute threshold, 50
The ... refers to the minimum stimulation necessary for a stimulus to be detected ... percent of the time.
signal detection, psychological
The theory of ... led to the concept that absolute thresholds depend not only on the strength of the signal but also on a person's ... state.
Some entrepreneurs claim that exposure to "below threshold," or ...., stimuli can be persuasive, but their claims are probably unwarranted.
Some weak stimuli may trigger in our sensory receptors a response that is processed by the brain, even though the response doesn't cross the threshold into ... awareness.
difference threshold, just noticeable difference
The minimum difference required to distinguish two stimuli 50% of the time is called the ..., or the ....
The distance from one light wave peak to the next is called ....This value determines the wave's color, or ...
intensity, amplitude, brightness
The amount of energy in light waves, or ..., determined by a wave's ...., or heigh, influence the ... of a light.
cornea, pupil, iris
Light enters the eye through the ..., then passes through a size of this opening is controlled by ...
By changing its curvature, the ... can focus the images to focus the image of an object onto the ..., the light-sensitive inner surface for the eye.
The retina's receptor cells are the ... and ...
bipolar, ganglion, optic nerve, brain
The neural signals produced in the rods and cones activate the neighboring ... cells, which then activate a network of ... cells. The axons of ganglion cells converge to form the ..., which carries the visual information to the ...
Where this nerve leaves the eye, there are no receptors; thus the are is called the ...
fovea, peripherals, bipolar
Most cones are clustered around the retina's point of central focus, called the ..., whereas the rods are concentrated in more ... regions of the retina. Many cones have their own ... cells to communicate with the visual cortex.
It is the (rods/cones) of the eye that permit the perception of color, whereas (rods/cones) enable black-and-white vision
opponent-process, red, green, yellow, blue, black, white
Hering's theory of color vision is called the ... theory. According to this theory, after visual information leaves the receptors it is analyzed as terms of pairs of opposing colors: ... vs ..., ... vs ...., and ... vs ...
In an unvarying context, a familiar object will be perceived as having consistent color, even as the light changes. This phenomenon is called ...
The pitch of a sound is derived from the ... of its wave
The outer ear channels sound waves toward the ..., a tight membrane that then vibrates.
hammer, anvil, stirrup
The middle ear transmits the vibrations through a piston made of three small bones: the ..., ..., and ...
cochlea, oval window, basilar membrane, hair cells, thalamus, temporal, number
In the inner ear, a coiled tube called the ... contains the receptor cells for hearing. The incoming vibrations cause the ... to vibrate the fluid that fills the tube, which cases ripples in the ..., which is line with ... This movement triggers impulses in adjacent nerve fibers that converge to form the auditory nerve, which carries the neural messages (via the ...) to the ... lobe's auditory cortex. The brain interprets loudness from the ... of hair cells a sound activates
One theory of pitch perception proposes that different pitches activate different places on the cochlea's basilar membrane; this is the ... theory. This theory has difficulty account for how we hear ...-pitched sounds, which do not have such localized effects.
A second theory proposes that neural impulses, sent to the brain at the same frequency as the sound wave, allow the perception of different pitches. This is the ... theory. This theory fails to account for the perception of ...-pitched sounds, because individual neurons cannot fire faster than ... times per second.
gate-control, gate, spinal cord, small ,large brown
Melzack and Wall have proposed a theory of pain called the ... theory, which proposes that there is a neurological ... in the ... that blocks pain signals or lets them through. It may be opened by activation of (small/large) nerve fibers and closed by activation of (small/large) fibers or by information from the ...
kinesthesis; muscles; tendons; joints
The system for sensing the position and movement of body parts is called ... The receptors for this sense are located in the ..., ..., and ... of the body.
vestibular sense; semicircular canals; vestibular sacs
The sense that monitors the position and movement of the head (and thus the body) is the ... The receptors for this sense are located in the ... and ... of the inner ear.
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