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Human Geography Chapter 12: Services & Settlements
Terms in this set (34)
Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it. A sector of the economy, it can be divided into consumer, business, and public types. Geographically, proximity to market is the only locational factor that's important, but closeness to customers is also crucial.
A business that provides services primarily to individual consumers who desire them and can afford to pay for them. Makes up 1/2 of all jobs in the US. The four types are retail, education, health, and leisure. The fastest growing of these is health care. The earliest kinds of these services were places to bury the dead.
A service that primarily meets the needs of other businesses. Makes up 1/4 of all jobs in the US. Its main types are professional, financial, information, and transportation. The fastest growing of these is professional. The earliest kinds of these services were places where groups could store surplus food and trade with other groups. People brought plants, animals, and minerals as well as tools, clothing, and containers to the urban settlements, and exchanged them for items brought by others. To facilitate this trade, officials in the settlement set fair prices, kept records, and created currency.
A service offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses. Makes up 8% of all US jobs. Some work for the federal government, others work for one of the 50 state governments, and many work in one of the many local governments. The earliest kinds of these services were settlements housing political leaders as well as defense forces to guard the residents of the settlement and defend the surrounding hinterland from seizure by other groups.
A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants; where people reside, work, and obtain services. They occupy a very small percentage of Earth's surface, well under 1%, but are home to nearly all humans because few people live in isolation. Larger ones provide consumer services that have larger thresholds, ranges, and market areas. Smaller ones provide consumer services that have small thresholds, short ranges, and small market areas because too few people live in small residences to support many services.
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther. It was first proposed in the 1930s by German geographer Walter Christaller. August Lösch in Germany and Brian Berry and others in the United States further developed the concept during the 1950s.
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area. Centrally located to maximize accessibility. Competition between businesses to serve as markets for goods and services for the surrounding region creates a regular pattern of settlements.
Market Area, Hinterland
The area surrounding a central place from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services. A good example of a nodal region. Often drawn as a hexagon around the node of service on a map. People closer to the node are more likely to obtain services from local establishments, this likelihood decreasing the farther from the node they live.
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. The radius of the circle (or hexagon) drawn to delineate a service's market area. This varies between services. People are willing to go only a short distance for everyday consumer services, such as groceries and pharmacies. But they will travel longer distances for other services, such as a concert or professional ball game. Also dependent on if the service is near competition or the travel time.
The minimum number of people needed to support the service by generating enough sales to make a profit.
A six-sided shape. When representing market areas in the central place theory, they are drawn as a compromise between circles and squares. Circles overlap and leave gaps when nested together, and not all points along a square are the same distance from the center. Larger shapes represent the market areas of larger settlements and are overlaid on the smaller shapes because consumers from smaller settlements shop for some goods and services in larger settlements.
A pattern of settlements in a country such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement. According to this rule, the 2nd largest city is 1/2 the size of the largest, the 4th largest city is 1/4 the size of the largest, etc. The distribution of settlements in the US and other countries somewhat follows this pattern.
Primate City Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. An indicator that there is not enough wealth in the society to pay for a full variety of service. Also constitutes a hardship for people who must travel long distances to reach an urban settlement with shops, hospitals, and other important services.
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. Mexico City is an example.
A service's ability to generate an adequate return on invested capital. Geographers are employed by large consumer services to plot the optimal location for their business. Geographers must:
1. Define the market area.
2. Estimate the range.
3. Estimate the threshold.
4. Predict the market share.
A model adapted from physics that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service. The best location will be the one that minimizes the distances that all potential customers must travel to reach the service. According to this model, consumer behavior reflects two patterns:
1. The greater number of people living in a particular place, the greater the number of potential customers for a service.
2. The farther people are from a particular service, the less likely they are to use it.
An area that has a substantial amount of low-income residents and has poor access to a grocery store. At some point, interaction between a person and a service does not occur because the distance between them is too great. Nutritionists are especially concerned with people who live relatively far from sources of healthy food.
A collection of individual vendors who come together to offer goods and services in a location on specified days. It is typically set up in a street or other public space early in the morning, taken down at the end of the day, and set up in another location the next day. It provides goods to residents of developing countries where sparse populations and low incomes produce purchasing power too low to support full-time retailing. It also makes services available in more villages than would otherwise be possible, at least on a part-time basis. A farmers market is an example found in many developed countries.
A service that involves sharing. These services challenge the traditional classification of services between consumer and business. Examples include Uber, Lyft, and Airbnb.
A major center for the provision of services in the global economy. The city most closely integrated into the global economic system because they are at the center of the flow of information and capital. Some of its business services include financial institutions, HQ's of large corporations, and professional services involving lawyers and accountants. Consumer services in these cities cater to the wealthy, such as plays, concerts, operas, night clubs, restaurants, bars, and professional sporting events. These cities may also be centers of national or international political power because they contain such structures. These cities are ranked by:
Offshore Financial Service
A service that exploits niches in the circulation of global capital. Found in small countries, usually islands and microstates, they circulate the global capital by offering little to no taxes and bank privacy laws. Offers protection of assets for people accused of malpractice and other illegal schemes.
BPO (Business-Process Outsourcing), Back-Office Functions
Services that include insurance claims processing, payroll management, transcription work, and other routine clerical activities. It also includes centers for responding to billing inquiries related to credit cards, shipments, and claims, or technical inquiries related to installation, operation, and repair. Developing countries have attracted the installation of these facilities because their workers are paid low wages and are fluent in English. Workers often must work late at night, when it's daytime in the United States, peak demand for inquiries. Sleeping and entertainment rooms may be provided because workers usually rely on public transportation (a daytime service).
A business that sells its products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
A business that sells its products primarily to consumers in the community.
The unique cluster of basic businesses in a settlement. Important because exporting by the basic businesses brings more money into the local economy, thus stimulating the provision of more nonbasic services for the settlement. It works like this:
-New basic businesses attract new workers to a settlement.
-The new basic business workers bring their families with them.
-New nonbasic services are opened to meet the needs of the new workers and their families.
What makes a particular community attractive and why a talented individual is enticed to work in said community. Affects the distribution of talent among global cities. Attraction is important in that these talented individuals are responsible for promoting economic innovation; they are likely to start new businesses and infuse the local economy with fresh ideas. This is determined in part by job opportunities and from the amenities offered for non-work times. Other criteria defined in Sperling's Best Places includes eco-friendly transport options, racial and ethnic diversity, recreational opportunities, and nightlife.
Clustered Rural Settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other, with fields surrounding the settlement. It typically includes homes, barns, tool sheds, and other farm structures, plus consumer services, such as religious structures, schools, and shops. A handful of public and business services may also be present.
Dispersed Rural Settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages. Typical of most of the rural United States. This pattern developed from the time of initial settlement of the Middle Atlantic colonies because most immigrants to these colonies arrived individually rather than as members of a cohesive group, as in New England. As people moved westward from the Middle Atlantic region, they took with them their preference for isolated individual farms. Land was plentiful and cheap, so people bought as much as they could manage.
Circular Clustered Rural Settlement
A clustered rural settlement that consists of a central open space surrounded by structures. These settlements were characteristic of colonial New England. New England colonists typically traveled from England in a group, and they wanted to live close together to reinforce common cultural and religious values.
Linear Clustered Rural Settlement
A clustered rural settlement that comprises buildings clustered along a road, river, or dike to facilitate communications. The fields extend behind the buildings in long, narrow strips.
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the 18th century. It helped make agriculture more efficient in Europe.
An increase in the percentage of the number of people living in urban settlements. This process has two dimensions:
-An increase in the percentage of people living in urban settlements.
An increase in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Louis Wirth distinguished urban settlements as having a large size, high density, and greater social heterogeneity in contrast to rural settlements. Prior to the 19th century, only a small percentage of people lived in urban settlements.
An urban settlement with a total population in excess of 10 million people. Demographia World Urban Areas identifies 37 of these. Developed countries have the highest percentages of urban residents.
An urban settlement with a total population in excess of 20 million people. 11 of the 37 megacities are classified as this. Developing countries have the largest and fastest-growing of these urban settlements.
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