Trachea Articular cartilage (found at joints) Epiphyseal plate Fetal skeleton
What does fibrocartilage contain?
Thick collagen fibers
What does fibrocartilage do?
It acts as a shock absorber.
Where do you find fibrocartilage?
Intervertebral discs Menisci of knee Pubic symphysis
What does elastic tissue contain?
Highly branched elastic fibers.
What does elastic tissue do?
It provides flexibility.
Where do you find elastic cartilage?
Auricle of the ear Epiglottis (Determines what tube something goes down from your mouth)
What are the characteristics of cartilage?
Semirigid, weaker than bone. Flexible and resilient due to elastic fibers and water content. Avascular (recieves nutrient supply through diffusion.
What are the functions of cartilage?
Support soft tissues Articular surfaces for joints Provide a model for endochondral bone formation (making bone from cartilage)
What are the immature cartilage cells called?
What are the mature cartilage cells called?
What are the functions of cartilage?
Support of soft tissues Articular surfaces for joints Provide a model for endochondral (endo=inside/within, chondral= cartilage) bone formation. (Making bone from cartilage)
What do the chondroblasts do?
Produce the matrix of cartilage
Where do you find chondrocytes?
They reside in lacunae.
Describe the structure of cartilage.
Chondroblasts produce the matrix of the cartilage. Once they become encased within the matrix they have produced and secreted, the cells are called chondrocytes and occupy small spaces called lacunae. Cartilage has an extracellular matrix. Perichondrium surrounds pieces of cartilage.
What is perichondrium? What does it provide to the cartilage?
Perichondrium is dense connective tissue. It provides mechanical support and protection.
Describe interstitial growth at the epiphyseal plates.
1. Chondroblasts near epiphyseal plate multiply; epiphysis is pushed away from diaphysis. 2. Chondrocytes enlarge; matrix calcifies. 3. Chondrocytes die and disintegrate. 4. Remodeling by osteoclasts.
What are the different types of bone fractures?
Simple fractures Open or compound fractures Stress fractures Pathologic fractures
What is a simple fracture?
Bone doesn't pierce the skin.
What is a compound fracture?
Bone pierces the skin.
What is a stress fracture?
Thin break from repetitive loads (overuse injuries)
What is a pathologic fracture?
Disease weakens the bone. (breaking because of disease, e.g. osteoporosis)
What are the steps of bone repair?
1. Fracture hematoma forms (blood rushes in) 2. Fibrocartilage (soft) callus forms 3. Hard (bony) callus forms 4. Bone remodeled
What is osteomalacia?
Osteo = bone, malacia = soft Called Rickets in children. Soft bones Leads to bowed legs
What causes osteomalacia?
Vitamin D deficiency Calcium deficiency
What is osteoporosis?
Excessive bone resorption. Porous bones.
What causes osteporosis?
What is osteitis deformans?
Excessive osteoclast and osteoblast function. Bone is unstable and immature.
What is another name for osteitis deformans?
Where is the most common place to find osteitis deformans?
Os coxa Skull Vertebrae Femur Tibia
Name the three types of cartilage. Where do we find each type? Which type is on the end of long bones?
• Hyaline cartilage: Costal cartilage, fetal skeleton, epiphyseal plate, articular cartilage, trachea • Fibrocartilage: Pubic symphysis, menisci of the knee and intervertebral discs • Elastic cartilage: Ears and epiglottis Hyaline cartilage is found on the ends of long bones (articular cartilage).
The names of mature chondro/osteo cells end with the suffix ____. Immature (building cells) end in ____.
What is the function of red bone marrow? Yellow bone marrow?
Red bone marrow performs hematopoiesis or the production of blood cells. Yellow bone marrow stores energy in the form of fat.
What are the four structural classifications of bones? What type of bone is the ox coxa? Humerus? Rib? Metacarpal?
Long, short, flat and irregular; os coxa = irregular, humerus = long, rib = flat, metacarpal = long
In what region of a long bone is the epiphyseal plate found?
Draw and label the canals of the osteon. Name the concentric rings and cavities containing osteocytes.
What type of ossification forms the flat bones of the skull? Which begins with a hyaline model?
What is the difference between osteoporosis and osteomalacia?
Osteoporosis typically occurs in older adults and is characterized by bone that has become less dense and more porous. Osteomalacia typically occurs in children when bone becomes softer and more flexible due to calcium and vitamin D deficiencies.