Civil Rights

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Sharecropping
System where landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops. Workers were very close to being slaves.
Grandfather Clause
A law that limited a person's ability to vote by asking whether their ancestors could vote.
Black Codes
Laws that attempted to retain some aspects of slavery in the post-Civil War South.
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation.
segregation
When one group of people is kept separate from another because of their skin color.
Jazz
Musical form that developed in the United States blending African rhythms and European harmonies.
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954 Supreme Court decision that overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson's "separate but equal" doctrine.
SNCC
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee promoted and used non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; mostly through sit-ins.
Ole Miss
Nickname for the University of Mississippi, which had a riot following the admittance of James Meredith, an African-American.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Made segregation illegal in all public facilities, including hotels and restaurants, and gave the federal government additional powers to enforce civil rights.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Law designed to expand African-American suffrage by making grandfather clauses and poll tests unlawful.
Black Panthers
Radical Black organization that promoted violence as a means to end segregation.
Affirmative Action
Programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities.
Lynching
Hanging of a person by a mob without a lawful trial.