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dogwood trees in Middletown, Conn.

a description of a population

recombination of genes as a result of sexual reproduction

cause of variation in genotype

phenotype frequency

# of individuals w/ a particular phenotype divided by total # of individuals in the population

occurence of mutations, nonrandom mating, genetic drift

reasons proportions of homozygotes & heterozygots can differ from Hardy-Weinberg predictions

no mutations occur, population is infinitely large, individuals neither leave nor enter population

conditions required for Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium

phenotypes that are expressed

what natural selection acts on

genetic drift, migration, nonrandom mating

conditions that can cause evolution to take place

movement of genes from one population to another

gene flow

small populations

type of populations most susceptible to loss of genetic variability as a result of genetic drift

directional selection

a change in frequency of a particular gene in 1 direction in a population

disruptive selection

type of selection that may eliminate intermediate phenotypes

one extreme in a range of phenotypes

what directional selection tends to eliminate

attract potential mates

reason large, brightly colored tail feathers of male peacock are valuable to him

there may be phenotypic variability in a species, organisms that can interbreed may have different physcial characteristics, does not consider whether individuals of a species can mate

reason for major limitations to morphological concept of species

populations that live in different environments may be exposed to different selection pressures

reason speciation can occur as a result of geographic isolation


hypothesis that evolution occurs at a slow, constant rate

punctuated equilibrium

the hypothesis that evolution occurs at an irregular rate through geologic time


the science of classifying living things

become more similar in appearance

this happens as organisms move through the biological hierarchy from kingdom to species level

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