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The shaking the results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface.


The point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake.


The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus.

P Wave

A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground.

S Wave

A type of seismic waves that moves the ground up and down or side to side.

Surface Wave

A type of seismic wave that forms when P and S waves reach Earth's surface.

Mercalli Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intesensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place.


The measurements of an earthquake's strength based on sesimic waves and movement along faults.

Richter Scale

A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.


The record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by the seismogram.

Moment Magnitude Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake.

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