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Anatomic Reference Systems (Ch. 2)
Terms in this set (49)
anatomic reference systems
used to describe the locations of the structural units of the body:
the study of the structures of the body
study of the functions of the structures of the body
describes the body assuming that the individual is standing in the standard position that includes: standing straight so the body is erect and facing forward; holding the arms at the sides with hands turned with the palms turned toward the front
imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used to divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes.
up and down plane that is a right angle to horizontal.
midsagittal plane (mid-SADJ-ih-tal)
divides body into equal right and left halves.
sagittal plane (SADJ-ih-tal)
vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions.
vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions (aka. coronal plane)
a flat crosswise plane, such as the horizon.
a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions.
front or belly side of the organ or body
back of the organ or body
situated in the front; on the front or forward part of an organ
situated in the back; on the back part of an organ
uppermost, above, or toward the head.
lowermost, below, or toward the feet
toward the head
lower part of the body
situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure
situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure
the direction toward, or nearer, the midline
the direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline
dorsal and ventral cavities; spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs
located along the back of the body and head, contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions; divided into 2 parts: cranial cavity and spinal cavity.
located within the skull, surrounds and protects the brain. In dorsal cavity.
located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord. In dorsal cavity.
located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis. Contains:
processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment.
chest cavity or thorax, surrounds and protects the heart and lungs.
contains major organs of digestion, referred to as the abdomen
space formed by the hip bones and contains the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
refers to the abdominal and pelvic cavities as a single unit.
relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen
regions of the thorax and abdomen
descriptive system that divides the abdomen and lower portion of the thorax into 9 parts:
right hypochondriac region
left hypochondriac region
right lumbar region
left lumbar region
right iliac region
left iliac region
located on the left and right sides of the body and are covered by the lower ribs
located above the stomach
located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine
surrounds the umbilicus
aka belly button or naval; marks the point where the umbilical cord was attached before birth
located on the left and right sides over the hip bones
located below the stomach
quadrants of the abdomen
right upper quadrant (RUQ)
left upper quadrant (LUQ)
right lower quadrant (RLQ)
left lower quadrant (LLQ)
a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity.
the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall.
the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity.
a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall.
located behind the peritoneum
inflammation of the peritoneum
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