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68 terms

Medical Terminology

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Origin
beginning of muscle that stays stationary
abduction
movement away from the midline of the body
adduction
movement toward the midline of the body
-asthenia
lack of strength
atonia
lack of muscle tone
atrophy
decrease in size of an organ or tissue from lack of muscle use and growth
biceps
2 sections to a muscle
biceps brachii
flexes the forearm and supinates forearm
biceps femoris
located over the femur
cardiac muscle
is striated in apperiance but is like smooth muscle in its action, involuntary in side the heart
circumduction
make a circle at the end of the limb
contracture
normal muscle and connective tissue turns to scar tissue from lack of use
deltoid
abducts shoulder
dorsiflextion
dereasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends up
dystonia
poor muscle tone
elevation
action of moving a body part upward
extension
increases the angle of a joint, straightening of a flexed limb
fascioplasty
surgical repair of a fascia or fibrous band
fasciorrhaphy
surgical suturing of a fascia , fibrous band
fasciotomy
surgical incission of a fascia, fibrous band
flexion
bending a limb, decreasing the angle between bones
frontalis
anterior body over frontal bone
gastrocnemius
plantar flex, bends knee and lifts heel off the ground
gluteus maximus
extends, abducts, and rotates thigh externally of the hip
hemiplegia
complete paralysis to either left/right side of the body
hypertrophy
increase in size of an organ or tissue
insertion
the point of junction of the muscle to the bone that moves
involuntary muscle
smooth/ cardiac muscle
lateral
towards the side
lateralis
muscle is towards the side
latissimus dorsi
lower back muscle
masseter
elevates mandible, elevates jaw for chewing
myalgia
muscle pain
myitis
inflammation of the muscle
myocele
herniation of muscle tissue through the fascia
myomalacia
abnormal softening of the muscle
myonecrosis
muscle tissue death of individual fibers
myoparesis
partial paralysis of the muscle
myopathy
disease of muscle
myorrhexis
muscle rupture
myotomy
surgical incission of a muscle
oblique
fiber of muscle are at an angle
oblicularis oculi
surrounds the eyes
oblicularis oris
surrounds the mouth
paraplegia
complete paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body caused by injury or disease of the spinal column
-paresis
partial or incomplete paralysis
pectoralis major
adducts, flexes, rotates shoulder inward
plantar flexion
motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground
-plegia
complete paralysis inability to move
pronation
turning the palm downward and backward
quadriceps
four parts
quadriplegia
all four extremities are affected, injury is at the cervical level of the spinal column, complete paralysis
rectus femoris
lower extremity over the femur
rotation
circular movement around a central point
spasm
involuntary contraction of a muscle
spincter
circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening, round muscle fibers or circular
sternocleidomastoid
turns head when one muscle is contracted, both contracted turns head down, muscle is on both sides of the neck
supination
turning the palm upward and forward
temporalis
over temple bone
tibialis anterior
drsi flexes the foot
transverse
muscle fibers go horizontal
trapezius
elevates and shruggs the shoulders
-trophy
development, nourishment
vastus lateralis
side of leg
vastus medialis
midline
voluntary muscle
skeletol muscle, moves all bones as well as controlling facial expression, and eye movement
zygomatic
smiling muscle over cheek bones
triceps brachii
extends the elbow (straightens the arm)