Stages of moral develoment: Pre-conventional, Conventinal, Post-conventional
Children; (1) Obediance and Punishment Orientation; (2) Self-interest orientation
Adolescents and Adults; (1) Interpersonal accord and conformity like social norms and good girl/bad girl attitude; (2) Authority and Social Order "because its the law"
(5) Social contract orientation; (6) Universal ethical principles
Stages of Cognitive Development: Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Infancy: Simple reflexes, first habits and circular reactions, coordination of secondary circular reactions, tertiary circular reactions, curiosity, internalizaion of schemas
Toddler and Early child-hood: magical thinking, moves from strong egocentrism to weaker form, acquisition of motor skills, no logical thinking
concrete operational stage
Elementary and Early Adolescence: no longer egocentric, logical and very concrete thought
Formal operational stage
Adolescent and Adulthood: development of abstract reasoning
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").
Duty to warn if: 1. a serious threat of physical violence is made. 2. the threat is made to a specific individual. 3. the threat is made in context of clinician-patient relationship
automatic repetition of vocalizations of another person's words
automatic repetition of movements
1st level-uses labels for simple categorical data. Only mode present
2nd level-1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th; bad, medium, good. IQ is an example. Only mode and median present.
3rd level-The zero point is arbitrary and there are negative values. Celcium temperature is an example. There is a mode, median, and mean.
4th level-Zero means "none". Mass, length, time are examples. Kelvin temperature has a zero point.
How well one masters specific life tasks
Personality Disorders Cluster A
odd: paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal
Personality Disorders cluster B
dramatic: antisocial, borderline, histrioic, and narcissistic
Personality Disorders cluster C
anxious: obsessive/compulsive, avoidant, and dependent
Personality Disorders NOS
sadistic, self-defeating, depressive, and passive-aggressive
Personality Testing; Concepts: Ink-blot, projective test; Study Basics: "Psychodiagnostics: A diagnostic test based on perception."
a projective technique using black-and-white pictures
(Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) Verbal & performance scores. Most widely used intelligence test today
Tendency for results to conform to experimenters expecations unless there are safe-gaurds for human bias
when people know they are being watched they act differently than they normally would. They may do things they wouldn't normally do.
form of reactivity; when researchers bias causes them to unconsciously influence the participants of a study
the use of obscene words involuntarily
repetition or echoing of one's own sounds or words
Tic Disorder Transient
Greater than 4 weeks but less than 12 months
Tic Disorder Chronic
Greater than 12 months
Documenting Client Progress: Behavior, Intervention, Response, Plan
Documenting Client Progress: Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan
Personality formed by age 5 during phallic stage. Children develop morality by identifying with same sex parent. This develops the superego.
a skewed distribution
Probability of .02
2 times out of 100 you will be wrong. 98 times you will have hypothesized correctly.
Statistical Significance .05
educated quotient. the research standard is usually set at this point. "5 times out of 100 you will be wrong".
analysis of variance. F test. compares the means of 2 groups. Parametic test.
compares means of two groups. Parametric test.
compares association or correlation between 2 groups. Parametric test.
compares the observed value with the expected value. nonparametric test.
a nonparametic correlational
takes family back to a comfortable balance and maintains homeostasis.
pushes family into the changes and away from homeostatic state. Allows for a more functional family balance to emerge.
family has an identity of its own and is more than the sum of its parts
the natural tendency to move towards disorder and disorganization