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Chapter 4 - Ancient Greece
Terms in this set (48)
City-states in the Empire were often coastal and surrounded by mountains. They lacked area for farming and had to rely on trade to supply food for larger city-states.
- First Greek city-state, rose to control the Greek mainland
- Set the culture of what later Greek city-states would be like
- Emphasized warfare, trade, and artwork
- Downfall thought to be from rivalries and warfare and possibly natural disaster
Greek Dark Ages
Period that followed the collapse of the Mycenaeans. Period had much hardship; warfare, population decline, little written record/artwork produced.
Changes to end the Greek Dark Ages
- Greeks group themselves by where the live
- Revival of agriculture, trade, and economic growth
- Iron weapons and tools now used
- Phoenician alphabet adopted; more efficient system of writing. Greeks now writing again.
Narrative stories told by the Greeks. Told stories of heroes. Values and characteristics (bravery for example) of the heroes became goals for all Greek citizens. Included some elements of fact, some of fiction. Later Greeks accepted the poems as history. They provided the Greeks an idealized past with a cast of heroes. They also served as the educational texts for generations of Greeks. Most important, they established a culture that fostered importance of courage and honor
Greeks greatest poet, wrote early period of the Empire's history. Many told stories of great heroes. Often credited with establishing Greek's early culture and values. His greatest stories focused on the Trojan War.
Critical event from early Greek history that provided for many of their stories on heroes. The Greek Myth is that Agamemnon (king of Mycenae) goes to war with Troy to honor his brother Menelaus (king of Sparta) and the Greeks. His brother's wife Helen has fled/been taken by Paris, a prince and heir to the throne of Troy, thus starting the war. Leads to a decade long conflict between the Greeks and Trojans.
Epic poem about a Greek hero Achilles, and how anger/aggressiveness led to disaster during the Trojan War
Epic poem about the return journey of one of the Greek heroes, Odysseus, after the fall of Troy
Name given to a Greek city state and its surrounding countryside
- Central focus of Greek life; Greeks seldom unified
- Center of daily life, people would meet in the polis for political, social, and religious life
Fortified (walled) gathering place usually atop a hill/high ground within a polis/city. Often included the more important buildings like temples and public buildings. Served as point of refuge/defense during attack.
Open area that served as a market and gathering place
City-states were fiercely patriotic and often clashed with one another
Hoplites and phalanx
Large armies of trained foot soldiers that carried a round shield, short sword, and long spear. Would march and fight in a formation that created a wall of shields to protect the man to their side.
Overpopulation, desire for good farmland, and the growth of trade prompted Greeks to expand outward from traditional homelands. Formed new colonies with a polis/city-state at the center.
Reached throughout the Mediterranean (southern Italy, southern France, eastern Spain, northern Africa, West of Egypt). - Spread technology and ideas of the Greeks to the lands they encountered
- Led to increased trade and industry (pottery, wine, olive oil from Greece mainland traded for timber, fish, wheat, metals, and slaves)
- Led to stratification of society/power; emerging wealthy Greeks from trade challenged the aristocrats/wealthy land-owners that had long been alone at the top of Greek society
A ruler who seized power by force, and usually maintained it through control of the military. Emerged in Greece as a result of the stratification of society/power, the new wealthy supporting a ruler that gave them political power/influence in exchange for money and support against more traditional aristocrats and landowners
- Gained territory through military conquest, defeated Laconians and Messenians
- Militaristic; emphasis on a military state
- Values; highly-disciplined, bravery "come back carrying shield or on it"
- Education; from early age, boys prepared for life as a soldier- Society; men, even if married, lived together in military housing. Women had unusual freedom for the time, as a result. Ran the home and took care of the children.
- Government; oligarchy
- Headed by two kings who also would lead the army on its campaigns as necessary
- Ephors; elected council of five minute that were responsible for the education and conduct of all citizens
- Council of elders; made up of the two kings and 28 elder citizens over 60. Decided on the issues that were presented to the assembly.
- Assembly; made up of male citizens, did not debate, only voted on the issues
- Outsiders and outside ideas not accepted
- Helots; captive person who was forced to work for the Spartans
- Discouraged the study of philosophy, literature, or the arts
- Government; oligarchy to democracy
- Headed by aristocrats that controlled the best lands
- Assembly; made up of all citizens but lacked real power
- Challenge; by 600 B.C. faced economic hardship. Politician Draco attempted reforms including enslavement for those in debt. Many farmers on the verge of falling victim. Civil war loomed.
- Response; other aristocrats empowered Solon to make reforms to quell/solve the tensions
- Reforms; cancelled the debts but did not redistribute land from the wealthy. Peasants remained unable to make a living. Largely failed and tyranny emerged.
- Peisistratus; gave favorable conditions to Athenian traders to encourage trade. Redistributed land from wealthy to the peasants. Athenians would rebel against his son that succeeded him to end the tyranny. Would bring political change.
- Cleisthenes; emerged to lead political change. Created a council of 500 that supervised foreign affairs, finances, and proposed laws to be voted on. Created an assembly composed of all male citizens that debated and voted on the proposed laws.
- Favored study of philosophy, literature, and the arts.
- As the Greeks sought to expand, they encountered Persia to had take control of the Fertile Crescent/Middle East and into Asia Minor.
- Conflict; Persians took control of Ionian Greece in Asia Minor
- Ionian Greek polis/city-states attempted revolt assisted by larger Athenian navy. Unsuccessful
- Persian ruler Darius feels slighted, wants revenge
- Attempted invasion of traditional Greece/Athens. Persians defeated at the battle of Marathon; story of Pheidippides and marathon race to report victory. Convinced Greeks Persia could be stopped, but only drove greater desire for revenge with Persians
- Xerxes; Vowed revenge, assembled massive army and navy for conquering traditional Greece
- Greek City states including Sparta and Athens able to put aside rivalries and differences for greater good of defeating the Persians
- Persian forces vastly outnumbered the Greeks, however Greeks especially the Spartans had considerably more skill
- Athenians forced to retreat from city
- Battle of Thermopylae; attempted to negate Persian numbers by funneling them into a mountain pass. Initially successful. Greeks ultimately betrayed, and the Persians showed a route around
- Battle of Plataea; Greeks formed the largest Greek army of the time. Though still outnumbered, dealt decisive defeat to the Persian forces.
- Result; Greek victory and able to pursue own destiny
- After defeat of the Persians, polis/city-state emerged as the leader of the Greeks
- Delian League; Greek defensive alliance against the Persians. Lead by Athenians. Eventually freed all Greek states in the Aegean that had been taken over by Persian.
- Control of the Delian League is often associated with Athens becoming an Empire
Age of Pericles
- Pericles; popular/powerful Athenian statesman that brought reforms
- Height of Athenian power
- Democracy flourished and the empire expanded
- Direct democracy; type of government in which the people participate directly in the government decision making through mass meetings
- All male citizens participated in the governing assembly and voted on major issues. Included passage of laws, election of public officials, decisions on war, decisions on foreign policy
- Most residents of Athens not citizens
- Values; democratic system and participation, learning/education, the arts
- Ostracism; process of temporarily banning ambitious/harmful politicians from the city by popular vote
- Successes; Athens became the center for Greek culture. With much of the city having been destroyed in the Persian Wars, Pericles launched massive rebuilding efforts. Constructed temples like the Parthenon and statues. Art, architecture, and philosophy flourished
Political life in Classical Athens
- Citizens had rights in exchange for responsibilities. Male citizens could participate in government. Largest of the polis/city-states. Included large foreign resident population that were not citizens. Also included large slave population (common to civilizations in ancient history); even lower income families might have a slave.
Economy in Classical Athens
- Based on farming. Included grains, vegetables, fruit, grapes, olive oil, wine, sheep, goats, wool, milk dairy products, etc.
- Based on trade. Imported large amounts of grain to feed high population. Became leading center of trade.
Society in Classical Athens
- Organized around family unit. Included dependent relatives and slaves.
- Gender roles with women taking care of/running the home and children. Mostly home bound with exception of participation in religious life. Taught skills such as spinning/weaving, cooking, etc at young age. Might learn to read and play instruments but no access to formal education. Subordinate to father/husband.
- Old polis/city-state rivalries re-emerge after defeat of the Persian threat. Two sides to the conflict
- Athenian Empire; Athens and the Delian League
- Sparta; Sparta and the Peloponnesian League
- Tension grew out of cultural differences, and while these had involved hostilities before, this time it boiled into a great war
- Overconfidence; both sides believed their culture was superior, and that their strategy for victory would also be superior
- Athens to remain behind the walls, receive supplies from its colonies. Had the stronger navy but knew they could not match Spartan army
- Sparta to surround Athens (lay siege to the city) and force them to come out for battle
- Plague (a sickness); major blow to Athens in the early year of the war, nearly a third of the population including Pericles died- Continuation; despite the early blow, Athens fought on for another 25 years
- Conclusion; Battle if Aegospotami saw the Athenian fleet destroyed in 405 B.C.. Prompted Athens to surrender within the coming year.
1.) Athenian Empire destroyed, and with it the age of classical Greek culture and government (the values Athenians had supported)
2.) Weakened the major Greek polis/city-states and ruined future ability to cooperate. Sparta, Athens, and a newly emerging third power Thebes would each compete for power and control. Ignored the threat of Macedonia to the north that would end Greek civilization and their freedom
- Affected every aspect of daily life
- Religion considered necessary to the well-being of the state
- Temples dedicated to the gods and goddesses, often the grandest building
- Chief Gods (12)
Greek Arts and Literature
- Legacy; inspired arts the Western world/culture
- Focus; creating works that express eternal ideas and civilize the emotions
- Examples; human body, moderation, balance, harmony
- Construction often included marble columns and a rounded/sloping roof.
- Most grand buildings were temples; dedicated to a god or goddess. Contained statues/often a central statue of for the god or goddess the temple was to dedicate.
- Examples; Parthenon in Athens, dedicated to Athena
- Statutes; desired lifelike statues (but not realism) and portrayal of the human body. Idealized the human form/embellished beauty.
- Examples; Polyclitus sculpts Doryphoros with ideal proportions
- Inspired drama as used in the Western world/culture
- Plays often presented as entertainment in outdoor theaters or for religious festivals. Typically three parts/plays (trilogy)
- Themes; good vs evil, rights of the individual, nature of divine forces, nature of human beings
- Tragedies; form of drama that portrays a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force. Protagonist is brought to ruin or extreme sorrow, especially as a result of a flaw. Most common for the Greeks.
- Inspired recording history in the Western world/culture
- Focuses on analysis of past events
- Herodotus; records History of the Persian Wars, often considered to be first real historical account of Western civilization. Chronicled conflict between the Greeks and Persians; struggle between Greek freedom and Persian despotism (serving a king). - Traveled widely and questioned/interviewed people in obtaining his information
- Thucydides; considered the greatest historian of the ancient world. Athenian general who fought in the Peloponnesian War and recorded his account.
- War and politics as caused by the actions of humans, removed the element of the gods.
- Use of facts and avoided story telling,
- Study of history provided great value in understanding/and acting in the present
- Organized system of thought or thinking about how we think. Prompted by a Greek love of wisdom.
- Focus; wanted to form rational thought about how the universe functioned
- Group of traveling teachers in ancient Greece who rejected speculation as knowledge.
- Felt understanding the universe was beyond the capabilities of the human mind, should not speculate, but instead focus on self improvement.
- Examples; topics like rhetoric (persuasive speaking)
- Socratic method; uses a question-and-answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves
- Emphasized reason. Believed that pupils already had knowledge, needed to use critical examination to bring it forth.
- Focused on the question of reality, and how do we know what is real
- Believed in a higher world of Forms. Objects we encounter/interact with are just the imperfect perceptions from our senses. Reality lies with the Forms themselves in a higher world.
- Use philosophy to understand the perfect Forms.
- Focused on observing and investigating objects. Contributed to entire categories of study; logic, biology, physics, ethics, politics, poetry, and the sciences.
- Rejected Plato's theory of ideal Forms. Instead emphasized the objects we encounter/interact with are reality, what we perceive is their perfect Form, and that there is no higher or other world.
Macedonians Invade Greece
- Greeks viewed Macedonians to the north as barbarians
- Macedonians lived in small rural communities, not city-states like the Greeks
- Macedonians grew in power and military strength
- Marks the final stage in the Greek Empire
- Came to power in 359 B.C. and turned Macedonia into a dominant power with a strong army. Admired Greek culture.
- Wanted to unite all of Greece under Macedonian rule.
- Battle of Chaeronea; Athens led a coalition of Greek city-states against Philip II and the Macedonians. Greeks were badly defeated.
- Brought the Greeks under his rule and became even more ambitious with plans to conquer Persia.
- Assassinated before he could begin the invasion of Asia leaving power to his son Alexander.
Had been carefully prepared by his father for rule. Philip had taken him on many military campaigns and shown him how to lead. Alexander wanted to fulfill his father's goals of conquering Persia and also avenge Persia's early destruction of Athens.
- Though Persia was weakened, decision to invade them was not without risk
- Battle of Granicus; freed/expanded Ionian Greek cities of Asia Minor from Persia
- Battle of Issus; defeated large Persian army on Eastern Coast of Mediterranean Sea
- Conquered Syria and as far south as Egypt - Alexandria; built a new city as the Greek capital of Egypt
- Battle of Gaugamela; decisive Greek victory in the Fertile Crescent/Middle East giving access to the city of Babylon
- Continued East as far as India. When his soldiers refused to go further, ended his campaign and began the return home. Many soldiers and Alexander himself died on the return journey.
- Sought to imitate Achilles, the hero of Homer's Iliad; brilliant military strategist and leader
- Extended Greek and Macedonian rule into a vast empire
- Popularized Greek rule by a single monarchy, future rulers would attempt to duplicate his successes. Challenged because Greek city-states wanted to maintain their own power.
- Spread Greek language, architecture, literature, art, and religious diversity throughout Asia and North Africa.
- Blended Greek and Eastern cultures that replaced the Classical Greece period
- Period when the Greek language and ideas were spread/carried to the non-Greek world
- Occurred during and after the rule of Alexander the Great
- Fall; Alexander's empire falls quickly after his death as Macedonian generals struggled to gain power. Empire split into kingdoms.
- Four kingdoms;
1.) Macedonia; traditional Greek mainland
2.) Syria; former Empire to the east
3.) Pergamum; former Empire to the west/western Asian Minor 4.) Egypt; former empire to the south
- Failed Assimilation; in addition to division/competition to gain power after Alexander, successors failed to assimilate Greek, Macedonian, and Persian cultures to maintain control. Alexander had wanted generals to marry Persian wives, incorporate them into roles as officials etc. Did not happen and as a result, Greek/Macedonian control over many of the regions became one generation in length.
- All will eventually be conquered by the Romans bring a conclusion to the Greek Empire
Hellenistic Arts and Literature
- Alexandria; becomes home to poets, writers, philosophers, scientists. Constructs the largest library of ancient times and a museum.
- Architecture; construction of new Greek cities and the rebuilding of others led to opportunities for architects and sculptors. Wanted to give cities a Greek feel throughout the empire, constructed baths, theaters, temples
- Art; artists contracted in many of the cities to sculpt and paint masterpieces. Art shifted slightly from idealism of Classical Greece to more emotional and realistic art.
- Writing; focus on short stories/poems for entertainment. Often contracted by the wealthy for entertainment. Little survived.
- Theater; center remained in Athens, new type of comedy popularized as entertainment
- Aristarchus; though unpopular at the time, posed the theory that the sun is the center of the universe, and that the Earth rotated around the sun. Contradicted prevailing view that the Earth was the center of the universe.
- Eratosthenes; posed the theory that the Earth was round and accurately estimated Earth's circumference
- Euclid; Wrote Elements; a math textbook covering geometry/principles
- Archimedes; "Eureka" worked with geometry of spheres and cylinders, came up with the mathematical value of pi. Also an inventor; Archimedes screw and water pump
- Epicurus; founded philosophical concept Epicureanism
- Epicureanism; belief that happiness is the chief goal in life, and that the means to achieve happiness was to pursue pleasure (free oneself from emotional turmoil and worry). Connected with idea of separating oneself from the world.
- Zeno; founded philosophical concept Stoicism
- Stoicism; belief that happiness can be achieved only when people gain inner-peace and by living in harmony with the will of God. Then they could bear whatever (including hardships) life offered (modern word stoic). Public service/being a good citizen to be respected.
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