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AP Bio Test Review chapter 8 & 9.
Terms in this set (77)
The process of cellular respiration, which converts simple sugars such as glucose into CO2 and water, is an example of _____.
A catabolic pathway.
An energy-releasing pathway.
A pathway in which the entropy of the system increases.
Energy is observed in two basic forms: potential and kinetic. Which of the following correctly matches these forms with a source of energy?
The covalent bonds of a sugar molecule—potential energy
Which of the following statements about the combustion of glucose with oxygen to form water and carbon dioxide (C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O) is correct?
The entropy of the products is greater than the entropy of the reactants.
Which of the following statements about equilibrium of chemical reactions is correct?
A reaction that is at equilibrium is not capable of doing any work.
Which of the following statements about ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is correct?
The cycling between ATP and ADP + Pi provides an energy coupling between catabolic and anabolic pathways.
Enzymes are described as catalysts, which means that they _____.
Increase the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
Which of the following would be unlikely to contribute to the substrate specificity of an enzyme?
* The enzyme has the ability to change its configuration in response to the substrate binding.
* A hydrophobic group on the substrate interacts with several hydrophobic amino acids on the enzyme.
*A similar shape exists between a pocket on the surface of the enzyme and a functional group on the substrate.
*A positive charge on the substrate is attracted to a negative charge in the active site of the enzyme.
Which of the following is not a way in which an enzyme can speed up the reaction that it catalyzes?
The active site can provide heat from the environment that raises the energy content of the substrate.
The binding of a compound to an enzyme is observed to slow down or stop the rate of the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. Which of the following could account for this observation?
*The compound is a competitive inhibitor.
*The compound is a negative allosteric regulator.
*The compound causes a cofactor to be lost from the enzyme
Which of the following statements about feedback regulation of a metabolic pathway is correct?
The final product of a metabolic pathway is the compound that regulates the pathway.
Which of the following statements is most likely to be true in the case of the feedback-regulated enzymatic pathway shown?
P4 binds E1 and deactivates it. > Many enzymatic pathways are regulated by the feedback inhibition model described here. In fact, it is so common that another name for it is end-product inhibition.
In general, enzymes are what kinds of molecules?
Enzymes work by _____.
An enzyme _____.
Is an organic catalyst.
What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction?
As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme _____.
What type of reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?
Identifying the highest energy form of adenosine
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the high-energy form of adenosine because it contains the most phosphate groups (three). This molecule fuels many different endergonic (energy-requiring) enzymatic processes in biological organisms. ATP molecules diffuse or are transported to the place where the energy is needed and deliver chemical energy from the breaking of their phosphate bonds.
Which part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule is released when it is hydrolyzed to provide energy for biological reactions?
The -phosphate is the primary phosphate group on the ATP molecule that is hydrolyzed when energy is needed to drive anabolic reactions. Located the farthest from the ribose sugar, it has a higher energy than either the - or -phosphate.
Which of these is exhibiting kinetic energy?
Energy is the capacity to cause change. Kinetic energy is the energy associated with motion.
"Conservation of energy" refers to the fact that ____.
Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy.
In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
Which of these are by-products of cellular respiration?
heat, carbon dioxide, and water
The reaction A --> B + C + heat is released in a(n) _____ reaction.
A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously.
Which of these reactions requires a net input of energy from its surroundings?
In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction?
The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction.
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction.
What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP?
It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
Select the INCORRECT association.
exergonic ... uphill
What is energy coupling?
the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
An enzyme is _____ when it loses its native conformation and its biological activity.
An enzyme is considered a _____ because it speeds up chemical reactions without being used up.
A _____, such as a vitamin, binds to an enzyme and plays a role in catalysis.
When properly aligned, the enzyme and substrate form an enzyme-substrate (ES) _____.
A substrate binds to an enzyme at the _____, where the reaction occurs.
In a catalyzed reaction a reactant is often called a _____.
The totality (all) of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism; Manages the material and energy resources of the cell.
Heat (Thermal Energy)
Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules
Begins with a specific molecule(s), which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product(s). Each step in the pathway is catalyzed by a specific enzyme
A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.
Consumes energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones. (also called biosynthetic pathways) (i.e. synthesizing proteins from amino acids)
A process that can occur without an input of energy.
The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement.
The study of how energy flows through living organisms.
First Law of Thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy: Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.
Breaks down complex molecules to simpler compounds; Releases energy. (i.e. cellular respiration)
The energy an object has due to its motion.
The ability to cause change. Some forms of energy can be used to do work (move matter against opposing forces).
Potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction.
Catabolism is to anabolism as ___ is to ___.
Most cells cannot harness heat to perform work because:
temeprature is usually uniform throughout a cell
Acoording to the first law of thermodynamics
energy is conserved in all processes
If an ensyme is added to a solution where its substrates and products are in equilibrium, what would occur?
Nothing; thre reaction would stay at equilibrium.
free energy is at a minimum.
A reaction that is spontaneous
Which of the following parameters does an enzyme raise?
speed of a reaction
A negative delta G means that
The quantity of G of energy is available to do work.
The reaction is spontaneous.
The reactants have more free energy than the products.
The reaction is exergonic.
What is most directly responsible for the specificity of a protein enzyme?
The R groups of the amino acids in its active site
An endergonic reaction could be described as one that will
produce products with more free energy than the reactants.
What is meant by an induced fit?
The binding of the substrate changes the shape of the active site, which can stress or bend substrate bonds.
One way in which a cell maintains metabolic disequilibrium is to
siphon products of a reaction off to the next step in a metabolic pathway.
In the metabolic pathway, A->B->C->D->E, what effect would molecule E likely have on the enzyme that catalyzes A->B?
the totality of an organism's chemical processes
pathways that require energy to combine molecules together
the energy of motion
enzymes that change between two conformations, depending on whether an activator or inhibitor is bound to them
term for the measure of disorder or randomness
the energy that must be absorbed by molecules to reach the transition site
free energy of activation
inhibitors that decrease an enzyme's activity by binding to the active site
organic molecules that bind to enzymes and are necessary for their functioning
regulatory device in which the product of a pathway binds to an enzyme early in the pathway
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