The predominant antibody of a typical secondary immune response is:
A) IgG. B) IgM. C) IgE. D) IgA.
IgG is the predominant antibody in a secondary immune response.
Which cell ingests microorganisms for the purposes of presenting their antigen to the immune system and activating an immune response?
A) Helper T cell B) Mast cell C) Neutrophil D) Macrophage
Macrophages are phagocytes that are involved in antigen processing and presentation for the purpose of activating an immune response.
Immune cells distinguish "self" from "nonself" by recognizing:
A) cellular RNA. B) major histocompatibility antigens. C) different types of phospholipids in a cell's membrane. D) "nonself" enzymes secreted by foreign cells.
B) major histocompatibility antigens.
Immune cells distinguish "self" from "nonself" by recognizing major histocompatibility antigens on a cell's plasma membrane.
Which of the following cells has the capacity to produce antibodies during an immune response?
A) Plasma cells B) T cells C) Memory cells D) Pluripotent cells
A) Plasma cells
Plasma cells are B lymphocytes that have developed the ability to produce antibodies during an immune response.
The condition in which the immune cells attack the individual's own tissues as if they were invaders is called:
A) alloimmunity. B) autoimmunity. C) hypersensitivity. D) graft rejection.
Autoimmune diseases occur when the lymphocytes mount an immune response against the body's own tissues.
Which of the following statements best describes the process of clonal selection?
A) An antigen directly activates B- and T-cell clones. B) Lymphocytes that can recognize and react to a specific antigen proliferate. C) A single lymphocyte develops the ability to recognize multiple antigens. D) A B lymphocyte is selected to become a T cytotoxic cell.
B) Lymphocytes that can recognize and react to a specific antigen proliferate.
The process of clonal selection occurs when an antigen selects those lymphocytes with compatible receptors and expands their population. The immunocompetent B and T lymphocytes also differentiate into mature B and T cells.
Older individuals are at increased risk for which of the following problems?
A) Autoimmune diseases B) Hypersensitivity reactions C) Infections D) All of the above
D) All of the above
Aging is associated with increased numbers of circulating autoantibodies that increase the occurrence of autoimmune diseases. Aging is associated with increased numbers of circulating immune complexes that increase the occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions. Aging is also associated with decreased numbers of circulating T cells and antibodies that increase the risk of infection.
If a person is exposed to antigen X and is later exposed to antigen X again, which of the following immune responses will occur?
A) Primary B) Secondary C) Determinant D) Immunosuppressive
This person mounted a primary immune response after his/her first exposure to antigen X and a secondary immune response after the second exposure.
Which of the following is an example of an endogenous antigen?
A) Poison ivy B) Injected medications C) Pollen D) The body's own tissue
D) The body's own tissue
The body's own tissues are considered endogenous antigens because they originate from within the body. The body's own tissues are considered endogenous antigens because they originate from within the body.
Which process confers long-lasting immunity against a specific organism?
A) Production of memory cells B) Activation of macrophages C) Activation of cytotoxic T cells D) Activation of the inflammatory response
A) Production of memory cells
Production of memory cells allows the body to have immunity against an antigen, even years after the initial exposure.
Th1 cells stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of:
A) cytotoxic T cells. B) B cells. C) eosinophils. D) Regulatory T cells.
A) cytotoxic T cells.
Th1 cells stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of cytotoxic T cells and macrophages.
The generation of clonal diversity is:
A) the reaction of a lymphocyte to a specific antigen. B) the development of natural immunity. C) the ability of the population of lymphocytes to recognize any antigenic molecule. D) the circulation of lymphocytes through the spleen.
C) the ability of the population of lymphocytes to recognize any antigenic molecule.
The generation of clonal diversity produces a population of lymphocytes that can recognize any antigenic molecule.
In contrast with the inflammatory response, the immune response:
A) is more effective at fighting microorganisms. B) is faster. C) recognizes specific invaders. D) has no memory.
C) recognizes specific invaders.
Immune cells have the capacity to recognize a specific antigen, whereas inflammatory cells respond in the same manner to any foreign antigen.
An immune complex is formed by which of the following paired molecules?
A) Cytotoxic T cells and antigen B) Antibodies and antigen C) B cells and antigen D) Helper T cells and lymphocytes
B) Antibodies and antigen
An immune complex is also known as an antibody-antigen complex.
Humoral immunity is generated through the process of:
A) direct cell lysis. B) stimulating an inflammatory response. C) producing antibodies. D) secreting toxic molecules.
C) producing antibodies.
Humoral immunity involves the production of antibodies that attack foreign antigens.
When a person has an allergic reaction to bee stings, which antibody causes the life-threatening hypersensitivity response?
A) IgM B) IgA C) IgE D) IgG
IgE is the predominant antibody in an allergic response.
The portion of the antigenic molecule that is recognized by the lymphocyte is called the antigenic determinant or:
A) MHC complex. B) immunoglobulin. C) epitope. D) haplotype.
The epitope is another name for the antigenic determinant.
The primary cell of immunity is the:
A) mast cell. B) macrophage. C) neutrophil. D) lymphocyte.
Lymphocytes (B and T cells) are responsible for generating immune responses.
The body's first line of defense against microorganisms is/are the:
A) immune system. B) inflammatory response. C) skin and mucous membranes. D) hypersensitivity response.
C) skin and mucous membranes.
The skin and mucous membranes are the first barrier that microorganisms encounter when attempting to enter the body.
Molecules that are capable of inducing an immune response are called:
A) lymphocytes. B) haptens. C) antigens. D) antibodies.
Antigen is the term used to describe a molecule that has the capacity to induce an immune response by the lymphocytes. Antigen is the term used to describe a molecule that has the capacity to induce an immune response by the lymphocytes.
What type of immunity is conferred when an individual is given a vaccine?
A) Natural immunity B) Passive acquired immunity C) Active acquired immunity D) Alloimmunity
C) Active acquired immunity
A vaccine consists of a foreign antigen that induces a primary immune response. For this reason, vaccination confers active acquired immunity.
What role does opsonization play in the immune and inflammatory response?
A) Prevents the lymphocytes from attacking self-antigen B) Stimulates cytotoxic T cells C) Stimulates exudation of white blood cells into the tissues D) Promotes phagocytosis of foreign antigen
D) Promotes phagocytosis of foreign antigen
The opsonized antigen attracts phagocytes that in turn will destroy the foreign antigen.
CD4 receptors that bind to the surface of macrophages and B cells are found on:
A) helper T cells. B) cytotoxic T cells. C) plasma cells. D) the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
A) helper T cells.
CD4 receptors are found on helper T cells.
Which is the main antibody transferred from a mother to an infant in breast milk?
A) IgG B) IgM C) IgE D) IgA
IgA, also known as secretory IgA, is found in the secretions from any mucosal surface, including the mammary glands. It is the primary antibody found in breast milk and confers passive acquired immunity to the breast-feeding infant.
Which cell stimulates both the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses?
A) Plasma cells B) Cytotoxic T cells C) B lymphocytes D) Helper T cells
D) Helper T cells
Helper T cells stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of B and T cells, thus exerting control over both the cell-mediated and humoral immune responses.
The Fc portion of the antibody:
A) is responsible for binding to specific antigen. B) is responsible for creating the hinge region of the antibody. C) consists of light chains. D) interacts with inflammatory cells.
D) interacts with inflammatory cells.
The Fc portion of the antibody interacts with inflammatory cells and proteins.
At birth, IgG levels in newborn infants are:
A) low. B) high. C) near adult levels. D) absent.
C) near adult levels.
At birth, IgG levels in newborn infants are near adult levels, but start to decrease as maternal antibodies are broken down.