The main source of bleeding in subdural hematomas is:
A) arterial. B) venous. C) capillary. D) sinus.
Subdural hematomas usually form from venous bleeds.
A decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is related to which of the following physiological changes?
A) Increase in cerebral blood flow B) Decrease in arterial blood pressure C) Decrease in intracranial pressure D) Cerebral artery vasodilation
B) Decrease in arterial blood pressure
CPP = mean arterial pressure (MAP) - intracranial pressure (ICP). If MAP decreases, CPP is reduced.
Intracerebral hemorrhages most frequently occur in the:
A) frontal and temporal lobes. B) occipital and parietal lobes. C) diencephalon and midbrain. D) cerebral cortex.
A) frontal and temporal lobes.
Intracerebral hemorrhages most frequently occur in the frontal and temporal lobes and are caused by rupture of small vessels deep in the brain tissue.
In the pathophysiology of cerebral infarction, the release of which substance is associated with neuron hyperpolarization and seizure activity?
A) Neurotransmitter B) Endotoxin C) Excitotoxins D) Calcium
Excitotoxins such as aspartate and glutamate cause neuronal hyperpolarization, which can result in abnormal electrical discharges known as seizures.
Excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation in the ventricles or subarachnoid space is a condition called:
A) cerebral edema. B) CSF shunting. C) Cheyne-Stokes condition. D) hydrocephalus.
Excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation in the ventricles or subarachnoid space is a condition called hydrocephalus.
In terms of risk factors, cerebral vascular accidents (strokes) are most similar to:
A) myocardial infarctions. B) brain cancers. C) Alzheimer disease. D) Parkinson disease.
A) myocardial infarctions.
Because strokes are caused by perfusion alterations, risk factors for myocardial infarction are similar to risk factors for stroke
A major risk factor for the development of a chronic subdural hematoma is:
A) trauma. B) brain cancer. C) alcoholism. D) meningitis.
Alcholism is a major risk factor in the development of chronic subdural hematomas.
The most common cause of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) is obstruction of a cerebral artery by:
A) atherosclerotic plaque. B) a fat embolus. C) vasospasm. D) a thrombus.
D) a thrombus.
The most common cause of a TIA is obstruction of a cerebral artery by a thrombus, which is subsequently dissolved by the body's fibrinolytic system
Which of the following is not a type of subdural hematoma?
A) Chronic B) Intracerebral C) Acute D) Subacute
An acute subdural hematoma involves immediate bleeding and the development of a hematoma in the subdural space. A subacute subdural hematoma takes 48 hours to 2 weeks to develop. A chronic subdural hematoma can develop over weeks or months an
In subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), blood accumulates:
A) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the brain and skull. B) around neurons and neuroglia in the brain tissue. C) in the ventricles. D) All the above
A) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the brain and skull.
In SAH, blood mixes with CSF in the subarachnoid space.
All of the following problems are complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) except:
A) vasospasm. B) increased cerebral blood flow. C) cerebral edema. D) seizures.
B) increased cerebral blood flow.
In SAH, cerebral blood flow is usually decreased because of the expanding hemorrhage and developing cerebral edema.
An individual who is unable to visually recognize and identify objects because of injury to the sensory cortex has:
A) anomia. B) dysphasia. C) agnosia. D) echolalia.
Agnosia is the failure to recognize the form or nature of objects.
Risk factors for stroke syndromes include all of the following except:
A) primary hypertension. B) anticoagulant medications. C) atrial fibrillation. D) diabetes mellitus.
B) anticoagulant medications.
Most cases of stroke are caused by thrombi or emboli; therefore, blood-thinning medications can decrease the risk of stroke in those who are susceptible to forming blood clots.