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Holt American Anthem Unit 4 Chapters 7 & 8.4
Terms in this set (69)
The Second Great Awakening
After the First Great Awakening (1700's), this was a movement in the 1820's and 30's that sparked an interest and reform in America.
The Reform Era
Lasted from 1830-1860. Was a time in which many Americans attempted to reshape society. There were many different movements.
The Abolition Movement
In the early 1800's a growing number of Americans opposed slavery and began to speak out They became known as abolitionists. This was a great reform movement that they led.
The Temperance Movement
Since alcohol was claimed as: crime, insanity, and the breakdown of a family, women started this movement, which was one of the first reform movements in the United States.
The Transcendentalist Movement
Movement in the 1830's-60's that held that reality involves going beyond the senses and investigating the processes of the mind of thought.
The Utopian Movement
Isolated communities formed that followed some sort of ideal, broke social stereotypes and formed their ideal society; ex. shakers and New Harmony by Robert Owen. They usually ran out of steam and had little effect.
The Prison Reform Movement
A movement that pushed better conditions for prisoners, more specifically for separate mental institutions and prisons.
The Great Irish Famine
In this tragedy of the 1840's and 50's, approximately 1 million Irishmen died and the country's population fell by about 25% due to starvation, disease, and migration -- It was caused by a blight that attacked the primary food source (potatoes) of the great percentage of Irishmen. A "push".
Democracy, freedom of religion, business opportunities, free/cheap land.
The opposition to immigrants, mainly sparked because of the Irish immigrants.
The "Know Nothings"
A social group formed that believed in Nativism. Their members claimed that they knew nothing when asked about crimes against the Irish, hence their name. They formed the short-lived American Party.
The Cotton Gin
Created by Eli Whitney, this device, when hand cranked, combed the seeds out of cotton. It was patented in 1794
Increased Demand for Slaves
Now that many farmers grew cotton (because of the cotton gin), they needed slaves to pick it from the feild
The Demand of Cotton in the U.S.
Increased because of the booming textile (clothing) industry in the U.S. and Great Britain
The Cotton Belt
A nearly uninterrupted band of cotton farms that stretched from Texas to Virginia
After Senator James H. Hammond (from South Carolina) stood on the senate floor and pronounced that "Cotton is King," people began to call cotton this
The Effect of the Ban of Importation of Slavery
Slaves were smuggled to ports in the south like Charleston (South Carolina) or New Orleans (Louisiana) in horrible, cruel conditions
The Increase in the Number of Slaves
In 1810, there were 1 Million slaves. By 1840, that number more than doubled - 2.5 Million slaves were in the U.S.
What amount of white families in the South owned slaves?
The North's Economy vs. the South's
The North was way less reliant on agriculture and plantations - they were much more industrial. The South relied much more heavily on agriculture
Technology in the North vs. the South
The North was constantly advancing in technology because of the Industrial Revolution - they were always looking for better ways to do stuff. The South didn't see much room for improvement, because the slaves did all of their work for them
Cities in the North vs. the South
Trade and Industry encouraged urbanization in the North, while in the South, people became rich just by sitting at home. They had no need to urbanize
The View of Change in the North vs. the South
The North was exposed to different people and a changin landscape, and they accepted change. The South had little need for change, so they placed a higher value on tradition
The View of Slavery in the North vs. the South
In the North, slavery was viewed as evil. In the South, people believed it was a vital part of their economy. The thought it was natural, and even sanctioned by their religion
The Father of the Industrial Revolution. He used a British watermill design to help create it in America in 1789. He Stole the British design
He owned a mill in Rhode Island and was trying to use the British design. Samuel Slater told him the design
Where Slater and Brown's successful water-powered mill was built, along the Blackstone River
The Origin of the Industrial Revolution
It originated in Great Britain, in the textile (clothing) industry.
Running Water and Steam Engines
These two types of power were used at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution
The British tried to keep their economic advantage by...
...Making it illegal for anyone with knowledge of industrial machines to leave the country or export machines
This New England town became world renowned for it's textile industry
The Work and Living Conditions of the Lowell Girls
1) They Made good pay
2) The worked A LOT (14/6!)
3)They formed friendships and clubs
The Effects of the Industrial Revolution in the North
More industries started to industrialize. Steam engines became better and more widely available. Urbanization increased
Development of these increased because business people needed to transport their goods to the growing number of factories and mills, and the growing number of markets (because of the urbanization)
The Erie Canal
Connected the Great Lakes, the Hudson River, and the Atlantic Ocean
The Flow of American Goods
Manufactured goods went to the east, and farm products went to the west
New York City
Benefited most from the Erie Canal
Eventually became the most important component of the American Transportation Network
The Printing Press
A German engineer used steam to power the printing press, which allowed publishers to print material faster and in much more volumes
Steamboats and the Railroads
These were Being used more, causing mail delivery to become faster and more widely available
Created by Samuel F.B. Morse, this is a device that sends messaged using electricity through wires
The Transportation and Communication Revolutions
As the Industrial Revolution was happening, so did these
Invented the first modern steam engine
Created the first commercially successful steam boat
President from 1828-1836. He was a down-to-earth guy who earned votes from many "rugged" people in the South and in the West. Revolutionary War veteran, nicknamed "Old Hickory." Hero of the Battle of New Orleans
Helped John Quincy Adams beat Jackson in the 1824 election by convincing the House of Representatives to vote for him. He became Q. Adams' Secretary of state in a corrupt bargain
The Election of 1824
Jackson v. Q. Adams: Jackson won popular vote, but not enough electoral votes. The election went to the House. Henry Clay helped Q. Adams defeat him
The Election of 1828
Voter Restrictions were removed, allowing people to vote for Jackson. He easily defeated Q. Adams
The Indian Removal Act
Signed by Jackson in 1830, this forced Native Americans to move west, giving more room for America to settle
The Indian Territory
A territory to the West of the U.S. that the Native Americans were forced to move to after the Indian Removal Act was passed (modern day Oklahoma)
Worcester v. Georgia
The Cherokee tribe sued the state of Georgia, and won. To get around John Marshall's ruling, the U.S. signed a treaty with a few tribal leaders who favored relocation (because of a bribe) and U.S. forces the Cherokee out.
Jackson's view on the national bank was...
...He opposed the national bank because he didn't believe that the constitution gave congress the right to create a national bank. Also he didn't think banks were likely to give loans to the poor
To increase nationalism, congress increased tariffs in 1810's and 1820's. But, it forced southerners to buy expensive northern goods instead of cheap British goods.
The Nullification Crisis
Calhoun thought that a state had the right to nullify a law that they deemed unconstitutional or against their best interests (sectionalism!). Calhoun resigned and became senator of South Carolina.
The ways of life of a specific group of people (music, art, language, clothing, food, etc.)
American Art and Literature
Two aspects of American culture that evidently changed after the War of 1812
He published a dictionary with a bunch of uniquely American words, which added to the U.S.'s culture
The belief that the interest of a nation as a whole is more important than regional interests or interests of other countries
Belief that one's own region is more important than the country as a whole - this was replaced by Nationalism in the 1800's
Served as chief justice from 1801-1835. He was a believer of a strong national government
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland placed a tax on the National Bank in Maryland, causing it's people to go to the state bank instead of the national bank. The government sued the state of Maryland, and won. It was made clear that the nation was more important that Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
Ogden had a state license to run his business, and Gibbons had a national one. They were rival companies. Gibbons sued, and won. National government was proved more important than state government
The Right to Regulate Interstate Commerce
The power that was given to the national government as a result of Gibbons v. Ogden
The Goals of the American System
To implement policies that would unify the country
The Suggested Policies of the American System
1) Tariff to protect American Industries
2) Sale of government land to raise $$$ for the government
3) Maintenance of a national bank
4) Government funding of internal improvements/public projects (roads, canals, etc.)
Was the American System Passed?
The Influence of the War of 1812
It increased nationalism in the U.S., and despite the fact that the U.S. didn't exactly win the war, it's citizens were proud
The Monroe Doctrine
A statement made that said that any farther attempts of Europe to colonize in the Americas (South) would be viewed as a threat
The Missouri Compromise
Since 1/2 of the states in 1819 were slave states, and the other free states, Missouri would be added as a slave state as long as Maine would be added as a free state. Also, the northern part of the Louisiana Territory would ban slavery. Feelings of Sectionalism returned
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