36 terms

Government Age of Exploration

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Christopher Columbus
his voyages had a lasting effect on the people of many continents.
Pueblos, Presidios, Missions
the 3 kinds of Spanish settlements
The Netherlands
the country which explored the New World but did not establish colonies there.
Caravel
Portuguese navigators of the 1400s sailed in these. Consisted of a lateen sail and a square topsail. One of the new weapons technology.
Mercantilism
this policy encouraged countries to export more than they imported so they could build up their gold and silver supply.
Silver and Gold
what did South America supply Spain with?
Glory, Gold, and God
what were the indirect causes of the Age of Exploration?
Compass
these inventions helped the explorers to cross the oceans safely.
Zero-sum gain
this economic policy states that since there is a fixed amount of wealth, there is always a winner and a loser.
Encomienda
a kind of land grant.
To cut out the Ottomans
why did Columbus look for new trade routes to China and India?
Spanish settlers with encomiendas could demand labor or taxes from Indians. The Spanish forced many Indians to work in gold and silver mines. Many Indian laborers died working on plantations. The Spanish replaced Indian laborers with enslaved Africans.
how did Spain increase its wealth?
Columbian Exchange
Europeans brought new ideas, plants, animals, and diseases to the Americas. Native Americans introduced new ideas, plants, and animals to the Europeans. It began with Columbus.
they wanted to trade with Asia, but they thought Magellan's route was too long, so they looked for a quicker way
why did European nations seek a northwest passage?
the Aztecs thought the Spaniards might be gods and the Incas were just getting over war
why were the Spanish able to defeat the Inca and Aztec nations?
New Netherland
Settlements along the Hudson River, merchants traded for furs with Indians of the northeastern woodlands, formed an alliance with the Iroquois, and sold furs in Europe.
New France
Settlements along St. Lawrence River, Coureur de bois trapped, hunted, and traded for furs with Indians of the northeastern woodlands "runner of the woods", missionaries traveled the woods to convert Indians to Christianity, formed an alliance with the Hurons, and sold furs in Europe.
Middle Class
the fact every male citizen voted for the burgesses was the main representative feature of the settlement's government.
Peninsulares
people born in Spain- upperclass, hold all government jobs.
Creoles
people born in the Americas to Spanish parents.
Mulattos
European and African
Mestizos
people of mixed Spanish and Indian background.
Charter
a legal document that gave the company certain rights.
Great Council in England
Parliament grew into an assembly of representatives that make laws. House of Lords. House of Commons.
Magna Carta
the Great Charter of 1215 that said the king could not raise taxes without consulting a Great Council of Leaders.
swamps had bad water, mosquitoes, and malaria, quarrelsome ruling council failed to make plans, starvation, colonists searched for gold and wouldn't work, and poor relations with Indians.
what were the challenges facing the settlers at Jamestown?
Political, Economic, and Religious
what were the direct causes for European exploration?
Many Indians died from chicken pox, measles, and influeza.
what effect did the European diseases have on the Native Americans?
By combining old designs together.
how were the Portuguese able to make a small, fast, and maneuverable ship?
Political
Become a world power through gaining wealth and land.
Economic
Search for a new trade routes with direct access to Asian/ African luxury goods would enrich individuals and their nations.
Religious
Spread Christianity and weaken Middles Eastern Muslims.
Columbus
who founded the first Spanish colony in the Americas?
Pueblos
towns, centers of farming and trade.
Presidios
forts where soldiers lived.
Missions
religious settlements run by priests and friars.
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