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A combination of all the sets I have made including all chapters from 1 to 55, you will have to go to the group in order to get The important Diseases Set, but otherwise this is the Magna Carta (2962)


A conserved sequence of 60 amino acids used in the binding to DNA. Usually found in transcription factors, it is used to express genes that are related, more specifically in development to make tissues associated with one another.

Model Organism

An organism selected for intensive scientific study based on features that make it easy to work with (e.g., body size, life span), in the hope that findings will apply to other species.


eukaryotes are genetic ____, they havae combined genomes of at least three different prokayroyes.


The development of body shape and organization.

Cell Differentiation

The structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a multicellular organism's development; dependent on the control of gene expression.

Cell Division

the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells


An embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of three layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.


The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development


In animal development, a series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inward, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula.


a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself

Cell Lineage

entire ancestry of every cell in the body of an adult (Like that of C. Elegens), usually represented over time in a pedigree.

Stem Cell

an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells)


Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.

Gene Expression

the activation or "turning on" of a gene that results in transcription and the production of mRNA

Genomic Equivalence

That each somatic cell in an organism has the same set of gene's


Found that undeffirentiated carrot cells could be used to make any part of the carrot, or develop into an adult plant.(Totipotent)


Describing a cell that can give rise to all parts of the embryo and adult, as well as extraembryonic membranes in species that have them.

Nuclear Transplantation

a technique in which the nucleus of one cell(usually undifferentiated) is placed into another cell that already has a nucleus(differntiated) or in which the nucleus has been previously destroyed, inversly related to the age of the donor(becasue of acetylation, methylation etc etc.

Reproductive Cloning

The process of implanting an early embryo into the uterus of a surrogate mother. The resulting animal will be genetically identical to the donor of the nucleus.


cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types


A fluid-filled sphere formed about 5 days after fertilization of an ovum that is made up of an outer ring of cells and inner cell mass. THis is the structure that implants in the endometrium of the uterus.

Therapeutic Cloning

the cloning of human cells by nuclear transplantation for therapeutic purposes, such as the generation of embryonic stem cells


The progressive restriction of developmental potential, causing the possible fate of each cell to become more limited as the embryo develops. Maked by the expression of certain tissue expression proteins

Tissue Specific proteins

found only in a specific cell type and give the cell thats characteristic structure and function.


An embryonic cell that develops into a cell of muscle fiber


The most abundant plasma protein, 60% of the total protein, made by the liver, plays an important role in osmotic balance, contributes to the viscosity of blood, transportation of lipids/hormones/calcium..., and helps to maintain pH


Transparent proteins in lens fibers that are responsible for the clarity and focusing power of the lens

Cytoplasmic Determinant

A maternal substance, such as protein or RNA, that influences the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes that affect the developmental fate of cells.


a transcription factor that binds to enhancers of various target, produces transcription factor that binds to the promoters of genes that produce features of skeletal muscle cells


The process in which one group of embryonic cells influences the development of another, usually by causing changes in gene expression involving the movement of certain signal molecules..

Body Plan

In animals, a set of morphological and developmental traits that are integrated into a functional whole—the living animal.

Pattern Formation

The development of a multicellular organism's spatial organization, the arrangement of organs and tissues in their characteristic places in three-dimensional space.

Positional Information

Molecular cues that control pattern formation in an animal or plant embryonic structure by indicating a cell's location relative to the organism's body axes. These cues elicit a response by genes that regulate development.

Multinucleate Cell

During the first 10 quick mitotic divisions in an Drosophila melanogaster, there are S and M phases only with no growt, so the amount of cytoplasm does NOT change, making it a _____________.


an embryonic cap of dividing cells resting on a large undivided yolk

Edward Lewis

(1) studied developmental mutations in organisms and linked them to specific genes, (2) first researcher to notice mutations in Drosophila that affected the correct placement of body parts and therefore had to be mutants in the development process, (3) when he performed test crosses with antennapedia mutants, he found that the mutation was inherited as a recessive trait

Embryonic Lethals

mutations with phenotype causing death at the the embryonic or larval stage

Maternal Effect Gene

A gene that, when mutant in the mother, results in a mutant phenotype in the offspring, regardless of the genotype. AKA egg polarity genes.

Egg Polarity Genes

Another name for maternal effect genes, these genes control the orientation (polarity) of the egg, one group sets up the anterior posterior axis, while the other sets up the dorsal ventrtal axis.


A maternal effect gene that codes for a protein responsible for specifying the anterior(head) end in Drosophilia. A defect in this will lead to two posterior ends being formed, and is due to a gradient of the mRNA (morphogens) expressed in one part of the body.


A substance that provides positional information in the form of a concentration gradient along an embryonic axis.

Segmentation Genes

the genes of the embryo whose products direct formation of segments after the embryo's major body axes are defined by egg polarity genes.

Homeotic Genes

determine such basic features as where a pair of wings and a pair of legs will develop on a bird or how a plant's flower parts are arranged

Gap Genes

Mutations in these genes cause "gaps" in Drosophila segmentation. The normal gene products map out the basic subdivisions along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo.

Pair Rule Genes

Genes that define the modular patterns in terms of pairs of segments in Drosophila. Mutations in these genes result in embryos with half the normal segment number because every other segment fails to develop.

Segment Polarity Genes

establish anterior-posterior gradient with each segment


the whole cell shrinks and becomes lobed

Ced -3

C. elegan caspase protein that causes apoptosis via the ced-3/ced4 complex which is upregulated by inhibitor ced-9.

Cytochrome C

loss of mitochondrial membrane potential will release substances like ____ which activate caspases


a family of cysteine-dependent, aspartate-specific proteases that are associated with apoptosis in neurodegenerative diseases

Evo Devo

Evolutionary developmental biology; a field of biology that compares developmental processes of different multicellular organisms to understand how these processes have evolved and how changes can modify existing organismal features or lead to new ones.


A 180-nucleotide sequence within a homeotic gene encoding the part of the protein that binds to the DNA of the genes regulated by the protein., and specifies a 60 amino acid homeodomain.

Hox Genes

series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo

Mads Box Genes

a conserved sequence motif found in a family of transcription factors, the MADS-box protein family. The length of the MADS-box reported typically varies in the range of 168 to 180 bp.Found mainly in plants(ABC MODEL)

Gene Therapy

The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder, for it to be permanent it must involve the cells that will proliferate throughout a persons lifetime(like BONE Marrow Cells)

Human Genome Project

An international effort to map the complete human genetic code. This effort was essentially completed in 2001, though analysis is ongoing.

In Vitro Fertilization

The most common assisted reproduction procedure, in which a woman's eggs are mixed with sperm in culture dishes (in vitro) and then carefully inserted into a woman's uterus.

Golden Rice

Vitamin A deficiency is a serious health issue, so 2 genes from daffodils and 1 from bacteria were inserted, with added genes rice plants synthesize betacarotene, whtn the rice is eaten it is converted to Vitamin A

Recombinant DNA

Genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms

Genetic Engineering

The direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes, which include the manufacture of protein products(like Hormones and blood clotting factors), by using this technological approach you can make recombinant DNA and then reintroduce it into cultured cells


A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.


Multicellular animals having cells differentiated into tissues and organs and usually a digestive cavity and nervous system

DNA Microarray

Technique used to screen a single sample for a vast range of different nucleotide sequences stimultaneously; it is often used to study gene expression

Gene Cloning

The process of isolating a gene sequence in the genome of an organism and inserting the gene sequence into a plasmid vector for production in large numbers.


a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family

Bacterial Plasmid

A Circular DNA molecule found in bacteria which can be inserted with foreign DNA.
Used to mass produce insulin and human growth hormone.

Recombinant Bacterium

Insert foreign DNA into a plasmid and then put the plasmid in a bacteria so it has foreign DNA too


a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction

Cloned Genes

Are useful for two main purposes, they can be used to make many copies of a particular gene and can produce a protein product, which may endow an organism with a new metabolic function such as pest resistance.

Restriction Enzymes

Also called restriction endonucleases, were first discovered in the late 1960' s and have made genetic engineering possible. They are found naturally in Bacteria and protect against foreign organisms. Is very specific and only recognizes a particular DNA sequence

Restriction Fragments

DNA segment resulting from cutting of DNA by a restriction enzyme at a restriction site (Usually Many

Sticky Ends

Short, single-stranded regions of DNA that came from broken double-stranded palindromic DNA.

Restriction Sites

The DNA sequence that is recognized by a restriction enzyme; the restriction enzyme cuts at this sequence, generating two DNA fragments (Usually 4 to 8 Nucleotides) , and because it is so small, restriction fragments are cut out at many places.

DNA Ligase

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds that close up the sugar phosphate backbone after the sticky ends form complementary hydrogen bonds(because these are only temporary)

Cloning Vector

An agent used to transfer DNA in genetic engineering. A plasmid from bacteria that moves recombinant DNA from a test tube back into a cell is an example , or it can be a virus that transfers recombinant DNA by infection.


Antibiotic resistance gene, found in vectors derived from natural episomes (plasmids) and bacterial genome.


Mech same as penicillin. Need a B-lactamase inhibitor. Used against Gram+ and HELPS (Haemophilus Influenza, E. Coli, Listeria, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella). SE: Pseudomembraneous Collitis (because of removal of gut bacteria). IV Form.


Gene part of the lac operon. If gene is intact, produces a product that can break down lactose and Xgal, and the colony WILL be blue. If not intact, it will NOTbreak down Xgal, colony will be white.


A Chemical similar to lactose that turns dark blue when cleaved by beta-galactosidase


a gel-like polysaccharide compound used for culturing microbes; extracted from certain red algae


The amount of cells that need to be present sothat they can be seen on an agar plate.

Nucleic Acid Hybridization

a form of DNA technology used to detect specific DNA or RNA sequences based on their ability to anneal to nucleic acid probes , if it know part of the neuclotide sequence of the gene of interest., then we could synthesize a probe that is complementary to it, which will then be labeled after it hydrgen bonds so that we could track it. KEY to this process is denaturazation of the Cell's DNA.

Nucleic Acid Probe

In DNA technology, a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid molecule used to locate a specific nucleotide sequence in a nucleic acid sample. Molecules of the probe hydrogen-bond to the complementary sequence wherever it occurs; radioactive or other labeling of the probe allows its location to be detected.

Genomic Library

A set of thousands of DNA segments from a genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage, or other cloning vector

Phage Library

Most efficient genome library, 160,000 are needed to make up human genome, made by the backaging of the recombinant DNA into bacterial cells, where they replicate and produce new phage particles, which are stored as a selection of phage clones.

Plasmid Library

Cannot contain much info, 700,000 are needed to make the human genome, made by a collection of bacterial cells each of which containing copies of a particular genome fragment

Complementary DNA

A DNA molecule made in vitro using (mRNA) as a TEMPLATE and the enzyme reverse transcriptase . Also called (cDNA) molecules , they corresponds to a gene, but LACK the introns present in the DNA of the genome. Useful for studying the specialized function of a particular cell type.

Reverse Transcriptase

An enzyme encoded by some certain viruses (retroviruses) that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.

Expression Vector

A cloning vector that contains the requisite bacterial promoter just upstream of a restriction site where a eukaryotic gene can be inserted, allowing the gene to be expressed in a bacterial cell. Allowing for the synthesis of many eukaryotic proteins in bacterial cells.


yeast artificial chromosomes. They are linear, like normal yeast chromosomes, not circular like plasmids. They can be used to clone very large pieces of DNA, up to about 500 kbp. They are not used much anymore, as BAC clones have technical advantages., Can surmount the differential transciption between prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.


A technique to introduce recombinant DNA into cells by applying a brief electrical pulse to a solution containing cells. The electricity creates temporary holes in the cells' plasma membranes, through which DNA can enter.


A bacterium that forms Galls in plants and transfers some of its genes into plant chromosomes through conjugation

Polymerase Chain Reaction

A method of producing thousands of copies of DNA segment using the enzyme DNA polymerase(Usually From Archaea), it is especially useful when the amount of DNA present is very scant or impure, because it is a quicker(a couple billion in a couple of hours) and more selective. Requires Double Stranded DNA containing target sequence to be copied, heat resistant DNA Polymerase, all 4 Nucleotides, and two short,single stranded DNA molecules which will serve as primers. Problem becose of occasional errors.

Restriction Fragment Analysis

DNA fragments produced by restriction enzyme digestion of a DNA molecule are sorted by gel electrophoresis; is useful for comparing two different DNA molecules such as two allels for a gene; used to prepare pure samples of individual fragments

Gel Electrophoresis

A procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel, the ones that are largest( or least negative) will move the slowest and farthest , while the smallest will do the exact opposite. These bands are NOT visible until a marker is added.

Southern Blotting

A technique that enables specific nucleotide sequences to be detected in a sample of DNA. It involves gel electrophoresis of DNA molecules and their transfer to a membrane (blotting), followed by nucleic acid hybridization with a labeled probe. (Must use an alakine solutiojn, Gel, Nitrocellulose, and a heavy weight to pull the solution through the cell. Most useful application is its use to identify the heterozygote carriers of mutant alleles associated with genetic diseases.


Differences in homologous DNA sequences that are reflected in different lengths of restriction fragments produced when the DNA is cut up with restriction enzymes

Physical Mapping

Assign genes to a particular locations using measurements that are a true reflection of the physical distance between the genes, usually by the number of base pairs along the DNA, which are then arranged so that they overlap

Linkage Mapping

Genes on a chromosome are arranged in a linear array, and the physical distance between them dictates the frequency of crossing over between them. The greater the physical distance,
the greater the frequency of crossing over. Made after a cytogenic maps are constructed by in situ hybridization.

Cytogenetic Map

a map of a chromosome that includes the positions of genes relative to visible chromosomal features, such as stained bands


Also called bacterial artificial chromosomes, which can clone much larger pieces of DNA but have lower copy number

Fredrick Sanger

the pioneer in determining the amino acid sequence of proteins, through his use of Dideoxy Chain Termination Method for Sequencing DNA .

Dideoxy Chain Termination Method

A method of determining a sequence of nucleotides in any CLONED DNA fragments up to 800 base pairs in length which can be determined rapidly by using a nested set of DNA strands complementary to the original DNA fragment, each that starts with the same primer and ends with Dideoxyriboneuclotide.(ddNTP), which terminates a growing DNA strand because it lacks a (OH-), and because they are tagged with a flourescent label , it determines the ending of the sequence which can be then used to sequence the entire DNA. (Developed by Fredrick Snger)

Hemophilus Influenzae

Gram- bacillus responsible for 5% of all bacterial meningitis cases,l also first complete genome sequenced by Vente and Celera Genomics

Celera Genomics

privately owned biotech company (Craig Venter)
techniques: relied on newer/faster DNA sequences & programs

Craig Venter

entreprenuer who worked for Celera. Developed the "Shotgun" sequencing method, wanted people to pay to view genes in database, raced against Francis Collins to Finish Genome

Shotgun Approach

• As genomes get larger, piecing together information gets more difficult.
• Typically used for smaller genomes, like bacteria.
• Early step is to fractionate DNA to that the fragments of the particular size are used.
o This is done by using a sonificator which breaks
the DNA into particular sizes that can be shown
on a gel and extracted and purified. The
end-sequences of DNA inserts are obtained and
put into computer to sequence them.
• Organizing the clones, you generate probes from the clones creating end-sequences and apply it to the entire genome. If the probe sticks to numerous places then you can attempt to say that they line up to each other in the genome.


study and comparison of genomes within a single species or among different species

Expressed Sequence Tags

certain short sequences that correspond to sequences present in known mRNA, are catalouged in a computer, which identifies sequences that are new product coding genes.

In Vitro Mutagenesis

A technique to discover the function of a gene by introducing specific changes into the sequence of a cloned gene, reinserting the mutated gene into a cell, and studying the phenotype of the mutant. RNAi is more effective and faster.


RNA interference; injecting double stranded RNA into a cell turns off expression of a gene with the same sequence as the RNA, useful in assesing differential expression of genes.

DNA microarray assays

A method to detect and measure the expression of thousands of genes at one time. Tiny amounts of a large number of single-stranded DNA fragments representing different genes are fixed to a glass slide. These fragments, ideally representing all the genes of an organism, are tested for hybridization with various samples of cDNA molecules.


the full protein sets encoded by genomes


the study of all of an organism's proteins, including its identity, structure, interaction, and abundance


a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C, or G — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species (or between paired chromosomes in an individual). For example, two sequenced DNA fragments from different individuals, AAGCCTA to AAGCTTA, contain a difference in a single nucleotide. In this case we say that there are two alleles : C and T. Frequency may vary with ethnicity


is a variant of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a laboratory technique commonly used in molecular biology to generate many copies of a DNA sequence, a process termed "amplification". An RNA strand is first reverse transcribed into its DNA complement (complementary DNA, or cDNA) using the enzyme reverse transcriptase, and the resulting cDNA


Severe combined immuno-deficiency. In this disorder both B-cells and T-cells are absent and therefore such babies are highly susceptible even to minor infections.


(Human growth hormone) also known as somatotrophic hormone is responsible for the growth of long bones, muscles and viscera.

Tissue Plasminogen Activator

converts PLASMINOGEN to PLASMIN in the presence of fibrin ,may lose fibrin specificity at high doses which disolves clots(Like in the case of a heart attck) and bleeding is common

DNA Fingerprints

Compares repeated sections of genes that have little to no known function, but vaary widley from one person to another(STRs). gel electrophoresis used to separate fragments, the specific repeats are then labeled using radioactive probes producing bands to e compared


Short Tandem Repeats, regions of a DNA molecule that contain short segments consisting of three to seven repeating base pairs


term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms

Ti Plasmid

a plasmid of a tumor-inducing bacterium that integrates a segment of its DNA into a chromosome of a host plants. frequently used as a vector for genetic engineering in plants. Comes form Agrobacterium tumefaciens

Genetically Modified Organisms

organisms whose genetic code has been altered by artificial means such as interspecies gene transfer


foreign gene that is transferred into target cell or tissue


a strech of DNA found in a Ti plasmid, INJECTED IN THE CHROMOSOMAL dna of its host.


a sclerenchyma cell with a thick, lignified secondary wall having many pits. sclereids are variable inf orm but typically not very long; they may or may not be living at maturity- seed coats, nutshells


Member of a clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons. Taprrot System, lateral root divergence, vascular bundles arranged in a ring. Multiple of 5


an organism's ability to alter itself in response to local environmental conditions, Can Be seen in the brain), plants.


the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants


A group of cells with a common function or structure.


Common aquatic plant of eastern North America having floating and submerged leaves and white yellow-spotted flowers


a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

Root System

All of a plant's roots, which anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food, have root hairs that significantly increase surface area and thus making the water transport more massive and efficent.

Shoot System

The aerial portion of a plant body, consisting of stems, leaves, and (in angiosperms) flowers. Main Photosyntheistic components take place here.


An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and nutrients from the soil. In Eudicots and Gymosperms(Taproot) ,and Most mono cots and seedless Vascular (fibrous)


A vascular plant organ consisting of an alternating system of nodes and internodes that support the leaves and reproductive structures.


photosynthetic organ that contains one or more bundles of vascular tissue

Taproot System

A root system common to eudicots, consisting of one large, vertical root (the taproot) that produces many smaller lateral, or branch, roots.

Fibrous Root System

Root systems common to monocots consisting of a mat of thin roots that spread out below the soil surface. (Described as bring Adventitous)

Lateral Roots

A root that arises from the outermost layer of the pericycle of an established root. Allso called branched roots they are usually on the outside of taproots in Eudicots.


A clade consisting of flowering plants that have one embyonic seed leaf, or cotyledon. Flower parts in multiples of 3. Parellel Vein Structure

Root Tip

Made up of the root cap, meristematic zone, elongation zone, and maturation zone, where most of the water is absorbed/

Root Hair

A tiny extension of a root epidermal cell, growing just behind the root tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.

Prop Roots

Thick adventitious roots that grow from the lower part of the stem and brace the plant.

Storage Roots

many plants, such as the common beet, store food and water in these type of roots.

Buttress Roots

Large wall-like flanks that grow out from trees to brace the trunks; angular, open enclosures, ready habitat for animals. Found in tropical rainforests. (Ceiba Tree)


(air roots) produced by trees that inhabit tidal swamps. By projecting above the water's surface, they enable the root system to obtain oxygen.


a point along the stem of a plant at which leaves are attached.