Terms in this set (59)
the actual production of children
names of menstrual cycle
Follicular Phase (1st half)
Luteal Phase (2nd half, after ovulation)
Reasons of infertility
Oral contraceptive use (within 2 months)
Age >35 years
Poor iron stores
How can infertility be disrupted?
Tubal damage, sever stress, contraceptive use
infertility in men including nutrition and non-nutrition factors
Inadequate zinc status
Heavy metal exposure
High intake of soy
the first line of treatment with women and amenorrhea?
What are some recommendations for women trying to conceive?
Lose weight (if necessary)
If underweight-gain weight
Don't drink coffee/alcohol
Have normal iron/folate levels
Understand oral contraceptive use and how it relates to fertility
Progestin only - weight gain, decreased bone mineral accretion
Combination contraceptives - altered blood lipid levels, increased blood and insulin levels, increased stroke
Stop contraceptive use a few months (2-3) before you want to get pregnant
recommended daily intake for folate preconception?
What are some potential consequences when delaying conception until the 40's
quality of eggs decrease due to damage of cells DNA
More likely to have disorders related to chromosomal defects
chromosomes may be damaged by aging, oxidation, radioactive particle exposure
What are the best ways to increase your iron intake?
Iron from plant foods
Iron from animal products (not as good as above)
How would you induce ovulation if a woman has a BMI = 35 and age 30.
Have her lose weight
increase whole grains, lean proteins, fruits and vegetables
How is PMDD characterized?
Mood swings, irritability, depression, physical symptoms
Treatment for PMS and PMDD
calcium, b6, chasteberry
reduce caffeine & other inflammatory foods
Signs and symptoms of PMS
fatigue, abdominal bloating, mood swings, anxiety
1st therapeutic option for infertility in the obese
Anorexia and bulimia nervosas: how do eating disorders affect fertility?
very low levels of body fat are related to a deficiency of estrogen production in fat cells
More likely to miscarry, experience preterm delivery, and deliver newborns with low birthweight (5.5 pounds or less)
Some with anorexia/bulimia nervosa will not ovulate/have a period
Linked to hypothalamic amenorrhea
Hypothalamic amenorrhea slides
Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: Cessation of menstruation related to changes in hypothalamic signals that maintain ovulation
Caused by deficits in energy & nutrients
Also called functional hypothalamic amenorrhea or weight-related amenorrhea
Diet strategies for Type 2 diabetes
body unable to use insulin normally, to produce enough insulin or both
oral medication to increase insulin production and insulin sensitivity
Weight loss of at least 7% or more
Increase fiber (14 g/1000 cal)
Increase exercise (150 min/week)
Less than 7% saturated fat
Eat more low GI foods, whole grains, lean protein, fruits, and vegetables
Recommendations for carb intake for people with insulin resistance and people with type 2.
Make 50% of your calories from carbs
Eat complex carbs
is there a difference?
Insulin resistance increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes if diet does not change
Bariatric surgery increases what risks for nutrient deficiencies?
Calcium, iron, copper, zinc, thiamin, B6, B12, and D
Clinical signs associated with PCOS
Excess abdominal fat
Abnormal facial and body hair
high testosterone levels
Low HDL cholesterol levels
Primary goal(s) for treatment of PCOS
increase insulin sensitivity
Dietary recommendations for PCOS
increase insulin sensitivity
lean proteins, whole grains, fruits & vegetables, non-fat dairy, low-glycemic foods
Celiac - what are the grains one cannot eat?
Gluten: wheat, rye, barley
What are the 3 components of the female athlete triad
amenorrhea, disordered eating, & osteoporosis
Women and PKU: why should they avoid phe?
people with PKU are missing phenylalanine hydroxylase, which is needed to break down an essential amino acid called phenylalanine. The substance is found in foods that contain protein.
Without the enzyme, levels of phenylalanine and two closely-related substances build up in the body. These substances are harmful to the central nervous system and cause brain damage.
Definition of preterm birth (# weeks gestation):
Born before 37 weeks
What is the preferred source of fuel for the fetus:
What is the change in lipid levels that occur in pregnancy
Increase during pregnancy
What is the critical period of neural tube development:
21-27 days after conception (folate)
Recommended daily protein (grams) intake for pregnant women:
What are food sources rich in DHA
egg yolk, orange juice, snack bars, fish
1st and 2nd half and pregnancy is known as
maternal anabolic while 2nd half of pregnancy is maternal catabolic.
Foodborne bacterial risks with pregnancy:
listeria monocytogenes & toxoplasma gondii
Found in deli meats and soft cheeses
National Health Objective for pregnant women or newborns related to anemia
low iron levels
Why must volume expansion occur before maternal nutrient stores accumulate? (p92)
A woman gains plasma and extracellular fluid, as well as amniotic fluid in order to supply enough nutrients to the fetus
What is the major function of the placenta?
Hormone and Enzyme production
Nutrient and gas exchange
Remove waste from fetus
Factors related to infants with LGA?
Infants that weigh greater than the 90th percentile for gestational age
Birthweight greater than 10lbs
Related to obesity, poorly controlled diabetes, and excessive weight gain are possible factors
What is the recommended wt gain range for normal pre-pregnancy women?
What is the 2nd leading cause of maternal mortality in the US
Preeclampsia-eclampsia represents a syndrome with what characteristics
Blood vessels spasms & constriction
Oxidative tissue damage & inflammation
Platelet aggregation & blood coagulation
Metabolic effects associated with obesity and pregnancy
high blood pressure, cholesterol, ect.
Women with _____(what)___ are at risk developing preeclampsia
abnormally high triglycerides
mothers smallness at birth
history of preeclampsia
preexisting diabetes mellitus
age over 35 years
Bariatric Syndrome and Dumping Syndrome (what is the relationship)
No enough room in the stomach so the food goes out and is "dumped"
Increased maternal blood glucose levels cause the fetus to __(what)___
increase insulin production to lower glucose levels. the higher the blood glucose levels received, the large the fetal output of insulin
high insulin levels increase glucose uptake into the fetal cells and the conversion of glucose to triglycerides
these changes increase the fetus synthesis of fat as well as muscle tissue, and may program metabolic adaptations that increase the likelihood that
insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and obesity will develop later in life
What is the treatment for gestational diabetes (r/t Nutrition and exercise)
treatment - carbohydrate counting
prevention - exercising, go into pregnancy at a healthy weight
Primary outcome goal for women with Gestational Diabetes
primary outcome goal - control blood sugar levels
What is the most common type of multifetal pregnancies?
fraternal twins aka dizygotic twins
Risk factors to mother of multiples
Development of preeclampsia & iron deficiency anemia
Preterm and/or cesarean delivery
"Best Practices" vitamin/mineral supplement recommendations for women during multifetal pregnancies
Women should use a prenatal vitamin and mineral supplement
Goals for nutrition management for pregnant women with HIV/AIDS
Goal - take medication to decrease transition rate, receiving adequate weight gain, watch certain nutrients such as iron, essential fatty acids. Food handling practices, checking nutrition status before pregnancy, making sure right amount of supplementation for multivitamins
Most common observed eating disorder in pregnancy
Best treatment for pregnant woman with eating disorders
Treatment - multidisciplinary team, you must look at all parts of the disorder with everyone on board.
What information should be provided by health care professionals when counseling pregnant teens
Info on how to find a food-assistance program
Info on good sources of iron-rich foods
Ideas on how to increase the number of milk and milk product servings to 4 serv/day
Ideas on how to buy foods that contain a lot of nutrients in proportion to the calories
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum - what is it and effects on pregnancy outcome
most severe form of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
abnormal facial features (flat mid-face, abnormally shaped ears, presence of a smooth ridge between nose and lips)
central nervous system abnormalities,
problems with social skills, learning, memory, attention span, communication, vision, or hearing
What are some dietary components with fertility and women?
Women should get sources of carbohydrates from fruits and vegetables
Important to avoid alcohol and caffeine
Proteins should come from animal sources-important for production of hormones
Healthy fats should be incorporated into each meal
What are some factors associated with reduced fetal growth?
Poor maternal nutrition