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neuro final quizzes

Terms in this set (51)

According to Umphred (2013), "Neuromuscular diseases encompass disorders of upper or lower motor nerves or the muscles they innervate ... the connections among the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), and musculoskeletal system through the disordered functioning associated with three neuromuscular diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which damages upper and lower _________ neurons; Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which compromises lower motor neurons and the PNS; and Duchenne muscular dystrophe (DMD), which affects the muscles themselves.
To review the normal connections, upper motor neurons originate in the motor cortex of the brain (Betz cells). Axons from these upper motor neurons descend by means of the _________ and _________ tracts to synapse with lower motor neurons in the brain stem (neurons of the cranial nerves with motor function) and spinal cord (anterior horn cells or alpha motor neurons). _________ from the lower motor neurons within both the brain stem and the spinal cord run within the peripheral nerves, which includes motor and sensory fibers, to synapse with muscle fibers. ...
Because of the absence of clear laboratory markers of ALS, the clinical diagnosis must be based on recognition of a pattern of observed and reported symptoms of _________ upper and lower motor neuron disease and persistent _________ in physical functions supported by inclusionary and exclusionary diagnostic testing. ... The earliest clinical markers heralding ALS are _________ (especially unequivocal fasciculations in the _________), muscle cramps, fatigue, weakness, and atrophy. During initial diagnostic visits, patients frequently report to their physicians a profound sense of fatigue or the loss of _________ tolerance. ... By the time most patients report weakness, they have lost approximately _________ of their motor neurons in the areas of weakness. ... Although the atrophy and weakness component of ALS is most obvious, 80% or more of patients show early clinical evidence of _________ tract dysfunction (e.g., hyperreflexia in the presence of weakness and atrophy, spasticity, and Babinski and Hoffman reflexes). ... A significant diagnostic feature of the pattern of the disease is the _________ of the weakness and the sparing of some muscle fibers even in highly atrophied muscles. ... _________ symptoms are presaged by tongue fasciculations and weakness, facial and palatal weakness, and swallowing difficulties, which result in dysphagia and dysarthria.