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AP Human Geography Chapter 3- Migration
Terms in this set (40)
Def- the place where your daily routine takes place (form of cyclic movement)
Ex- Wherever you go during the day. Mine is consisted of school and my house on a weekday.
Def- migrating to a neighboring country to take advantage of short term economic opportunities
Ex- A Canadian migrating to the United States to take up a better paying job.
Def- A person examining a region that is unknown to them: includes surveyors and cartographers
Ex- Christopher Columbus exploring the Western Hemisphere in 1492 (Columbian exchange: transferal of diseases). Led to permanent mass-settlements of Europeans in 16th-17th century.
Def- When refugees are safely returned to their homeland usually with the help of government or non government organizations.
Ex- Sending people back once a war ends in their country.
(Tutsi returning to Rwanda after the Genocide)
Def- A change in residence intended to be permanent (the mover might not ever return home)
Ex- When many people moved from Cuba to the United States and never returned to Cuba because the U.S. isn't communist.
19th century migrations to the United States:
-Poles moving into Chicago
-Chinese to work on railroads (example of migrant workers) to the west coast of the U.S. (Southern China- linguistic heritage: they speak Cantonese)
-Italians coming into New York
-Scandinavians into Midwestern areas: Wisconsin
Def- The act of a person migrating into a new country or areas, adds to the total population of a country.
Ex- Immigrants to the United States make the U.S.'s population rise.
Def- A system of pastoral farming where ranchers move livestock between lowland and highland pastures according to the seasonal availability of pastures (seasonal)
Ex- When Swiss pastoralists move cattle to different pastures.
Def- Migration that occurs within a single country's border
Ex- If I moved from Florida to California (westward and southward movements WITHIN the U.S.)
Def- movement across international borders (also known as transnational migration)
Ex- If I moved from the U.S. to Amsterdam. TO NEW COUNTRY
Def- laws and regulations of a state designed specifically to control immigration into that state
Ex- the prevention of immigration of Chinese people to California during the early 1900s when quotas were established.
-In Quebec, Canada, immigrants are required to go to the French-Speaking schools and learn French, rather than English.
Def- A form of cyclic movement (shorter periods away from home) when is a seasonal movement regarding the matter of survival, culture, and tradition
Ex- Nomadic tribe of the San people in Southern Africa follow the game so they move their villages from season to season.
Def- swells in migration from one origin to the same destination caused by different patterns of chain migration built up
Ex-After the Vietnamese war (Northern communist forces occupied South Vietnam), there was a large influx into the US of Southern Vietnamese who had allied with the Americans.
Laws of migration
Def- Created by Ernst Ravenstein (British demographer) to predict the flow of migrants
Ex- 1. Every migration flow generates a return or counter migration
2. The majority of migrants move a short distance
3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations
4. Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas
5. Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults
Def- a type of periodic movement that involves millions of U.S. workers and tens of millions of workers worldwide, cross international borders in search of employment and become immigrants
Ex- During the strawberry season in Southern California, migrants will move up from Mexico to farm until strawberries are harvested.
Def- the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of site farther away
Ex- Guatemalans escaping the war in the 90s, fled towards to the US. Many stayed in Mexico because they were able to find work and resettled.
Def- people who have fled their country become of political persecution and seek asylum in another country
Ex- During the Syrian Civil War, thousands of Syrians fled to Europe seeking safety (asylum).
Def- shelter and protection in one stage for refugees from another state: right to protection in the first country in which the refugee arrives
Ex- During the genocide in Sudan in the 1990s, thousands of young men were granted this in the United States. They were called the "Lost Boys"
Def- types of push and pull factors that influence a migrant's decision to go where family or friends have already found success
Ex- When Turks heard about Germany's need for migrant labor after World War II. AND when Algerians knew where the most welcoming and favorable destinations were in France in the same time period.
Def- moving to a distant destination that occurs in stages
Ex- moving from a farm-->village-->town-->city.
Def- the Soviet policy to promote the diffusion of Russian culture throughout the republics of the former Soviet Union (trying to spread Russian culture throughout the S.U.)
Ex- making sure all of the countries in the S.U. followed Russian culture, language, religion, etc.
-real time example: Crimean pressure- breakaway province under Russian control.
Def- migration that takes place across international boundaries and between world regions
Ex- before 1500, this occurred unexpectedly. After Columbus- it was intentional
Def- form of periodic movement, 10 million U.S. citizens moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years.
Ex- If a soldier is moved to the Middle East to help with the wars agains extremism (often collaborating with the country's military) in Iraq, Afghanistan.
Def- pattern of migration when migrants move along and through kinship links
Ex- when a recent migrant communicated with others and describes the place, causing the friends and family to migrate there as well. Chinese railroad migrants in the US followed by family members.
Def- established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year. How many of each country can migrate.
Ex- emigration to the United States of 3% of the number of nationals living in the U.S. in 1910 is permitted.
-Limited the amount of Chinese immigrants and more Europeans.
Def- the act of a government sending a migrant out of its country and back to the migrant's home country.
Ex- illegal immigrants are often sent back to their home.
Def- the effects of distance on interaction, the further away something is-->less interaction
Ex- It is more likely for their to be interaction between Canada and the U.S. than the U.S. and Australia. Migration of dense, large cities, closer to destination (with low unemployment causes greater migration.)
Def- negative conditions and perceptions the cause people to leave their home and migrate to a new place.
Ex- communism, high housing and tax costs, civil war, natural calamity (drought or storms), human impositions, political policies, persecution
Def- positive conditions and perceptions that attract people to new locations
Ex- democracy, good living conditions, friends and family (kinship links), economic opportunity,
Def- when migrants weighs options and choices and can be analyzed and understood as a series of options or choices that result in the movement
Ex- using push and pull factors to decide if you want to migrate in search of better opportunities
Def- a legal immigrant who has a work visa, and is usually short term
Ex- what Western European governments called labor migrants.
Def- involves the imposition of authority of power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice
--1619: first females who introduced to colonies, Africans who disembarked from ships in Jamestown
--Africans were used to make rice- immune to malaria (also occurred with sugarcane)- Throughout the US, Brazil and Caribbean
Def- Movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally, involves shorter periods away from home
1. Activity spaces
2. Nomandic migration
3. Migrant labor
Def- when individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from immigrating
Ex- criminal records, poor health, subversive activities
Def- involves longer periods away from home, but only temporary
2. military service
3. College attendence
Def- a mathematical prediction the the interaction of places, interaction being a function of population size of the respective places and the distance between them
Ex- people will gravitate to closer, larger cities.
Def- money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, usually in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries
Ex- If a young man sends back money to his parents that still live in India to improve their home. Local economies can benefit from money sent in from workers overseas.
Def- colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of people and the land
Ex- Europeans this almost all of South America and Africa during the late 19th and early 20th century. Consequences: diffusion of Christianity and Language (English, French, Spanish) and dehumanizaton of native populations.
Internally displaced persons
Def- people who have been displaced within their own countries and do not cross international borders as they flee
Ex- People fleeing flooding and devastation after the hurricane in New Orleans had no place to live.
Syrians who could not make it to Europe, are living throughout the surrounding countries (Lebennon, Jordan, Iraq, and Turkey) in refugee camps.
Islands of development
Def- place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
Ex- Oil fields of the Middle East pull workers from India, Bangladesh and Africa
Def- When people in the poorer countries send money to the migrants in the MDCs
Ex- money coming from Mexico to the U.S. because unemployed migrants are asking family back home for financial support.
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