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47 terms

TEXES 111 Generalist 4-8

Info gathered from study guides, teks, taks tests
STUDY
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phoneme
a member of the set of the smallest units of speech that serve to distinguish one utterance from another in a language or dialect
morphemes
minimal units of words that have a meaning and cannot be subdivided further. There are two main types: free and bound, smallest meaningful units of speech; simple words, suffixes, prefixes; examples: red, hot, calm, -ed, pre-
phonology
the sound system of a language
grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
syntax
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
lexicon
a language user's knowledge of words
descriptive grammar
A grammar that describes a language as it is spoken
prescriptive grammar
"don't use ain't" grammatical rules prescribed by a language authority (teacher)
segment
any discrete unit tht can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech
language
a system that associates sounds (or gestures) with meanings in a way that uses words and sentences
linguistics
the scientific study of human language
applied linguistics
the study that attempts to make practical use of the knowledge derived from general linguistic research
phonetics
the study of the sounds of language
morphology
the study of word formation and structure
semantics
the study of language meaning
pragmatics
the study of language use
onomatopoeia
a word that imitates the sound it represents
sound symbolism
Certain sounds occur in words may suggest the meaning. example: "teeny" or "petite"
syllable
A unit of speech heard as a single sound; one "beat" of a word or phrase.
suprasegmental
pitch, intonation, stress, duration, rhythm, juncture; independent of and of longer duration than segmentals
phonotactic
how things sound in context.
ex. s sometimes sounds like z
vowel
sound made with an unobstructed vocal tract
consonant
sound made with a constricted vocal tract
phonotactics
set of rules about structure of syllable; what sounds are permitted in what order
babbling
stage of language development at 6 - 15 months when an infant spontaneously utters nonsense sounds
phonemes and sound sequences
at ages 1-2, babies learn to produce these two things
sensitivity to phonotactics
at ages 3-4, kids develop
early perception of speech sounds
between 1-4 months, babies develop
decoding
the process of using the relationships between spelling and pronunciation at the letter, syllable, and word levels to figure out unfamiliar words
blending
a key skill to teach beginners because it mimics the process readers go through to sound out a word. Once readers have learned to match letter names with letter sounds, this knowledge is used to pronounce words by combining the separate sounds to arrive at the complete word, as in /p/-/a/-/t/ /pat/.
onset
the part of a word or syllable before the vowel
rime
the part of a word or syllable from the vowel onward
structural analysis
the process of interpreting word parts that make up a word. "[U]sing word parts enables the reader to determine the pronunciation and meaning of unknown words. This word identification technique is effective especially if it is used along with phonic analysis and context clues."
cognate
having the same ancestral language
finding the main idea
reading strategy: finding critical facts and details in narrative or expository literature
sequencing
reading strategy: identifying the beginning, middle and end of a story
summarizing
reading strategy: pulling together information in a meaningful way through written or oral presentations
making predictions
reading strategy: reaching conclusions and imagine outcomes based on prior knowledge combined with new knowledge
using imagery
reading strategy: using imagination to create pictures in the mind about what has been read or studied and then communicate what is imagined
writing
reading strategy: constructing meaning through written expression. re-read and write about a story or create a new story based on given story elements
retelling
reading strategy: respond to stories by telling them to somebody else, by role-playing, drawing pictures or using storyboards
sight word vocabulary
Developing a strong _____ _____ _____ is an important part of learning to read. It is especially important for children with learning disabilities in basic reading and those who cannot use phonics skills to decode words.
reading fluency
a combination of automaticity and accuracy while reading a passage
D
As a word identification strategy, structural analysis would be most effective in helping eight graders determine the meaning of which of the following words?

A. Sartorial
B. Wisteria
C. Haberdasher
D. Bibliophile
C
The Great Pyramid at Giza is approximately 150 meters high and has a square base approximately 230 meters on a side. What is the approximate area of a horizontal cross section of the pyramid taken 50 meters above its base?

A. 5880 square meters
B. 11760 square meters
C. 23510 square meters
D. 35270 square meters
C
Enlightenment thinkers most influenced subsequent developments in European history by

A. restoring traditional ideals taht emphasized the benefits of a hierarchical ordering of society
B. championing reforms that extended political rights to people from all social classes
C. applying reason and the scientific method to the study of all aspects of social and political life
D. seeking to restore religious unity that had been disrupted by the Protestant Reformation
D
On a class field trip, students encounter some brightly colored shelf-like structures attached to the trunk of a dead tree. Which of the following is the best description of how this organism obtains matter and energy from its environment?

A. it obtains energy from the dead wood and absorbs carbon dioxide and water vapor from the air.
B. It obtains energy from sunlight, absorbs carbon from the dead wood and obtains water vapor from the air.
C. It obtains energy from sunlight and obtains carbon and water from the dead wood.
D. It obtains energy, carbon and water from the dead wood.