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a member of the set of the smallest units of speech that serve to distinguish one utterance from another in a language or dialect


minimal units of words that have a meaning and cannot be subdivided further. There are two main types: free and bound, smallest meaningful units of speech; simple words, suffixes, prefixes; examples: red, hot, calm, -ed, pre-


the sound system of a language


in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others


the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences


a language user's knowledge of words

descriptive grammar

A grammar that describes a language as it is spoken

prescriptive grammar

"don't use ain't" grammatical rules prescribed by a language authority (teacher)


any discrete unit tht can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech


a system that associates sounds (or gestures) with meanings in a way that uses words and sentences


the scientific study of human language

applied linguistics

the study that attempts to make practical use of the knowledge derived from general linguistic research


the study of the sounds of language


the study of word formation and structure


the study of language meaning


the study of language use


a word that imitates the sound it represents

sound symbolism

Certain sounds occur in words may suggest the meaning. example: "teeny" or "petite"


A unit of speech heard as a single sound; one "beat" of a word or phrase.


pitch, intonation, stress, duration, rhythm, juncture; independent of and of longer duration than segmentals


how things sound in context.
ex. s sometimes sounds like z


sound made with an unobstructed vocal tract


sound made with a constricted vocal tract


set of rules about structure of syllable; what sounds are permitted in what order


stage of language development at 6 - 15 months when an infant spontaneously utters nonsense sounds

phonemes and sound sequences

at ages 1-2, babies learn to produce these two things

sensitivity to phonotactics

at ages 3-4, kids develop

early perception of speech sounds

between 1-4 months, babies develop


the process of using the relationships between spelling and pronunciation at the letter, syllable, and word levels to figure out unfamiliar words


a key skill to teach beginners because it mimics the process readers go through to sound out a word. Once readers have learned to match letter names with letter sounds, this knowledge is used to pronounce words by combining the separate sounds to arrive at the complete word, as in /p/-/a/-/t/ /pat/.


the part of a word or syllable before the vowel


the part of a word or syllable from the vowel onward

structural analysis

the process of interpreting word parts that make up a word. "[U]sing word parts enables the reader to determine the pronunciation and meaning of unknown words. This word identification technique is effective especially if it is used along with phonic analysis and context clues."


having the same ancestral language

finding the main idea

reading strategy: finding critical facts and details in narrative or expository literature


reading strategy: identifying the beginning, middle and end of a story


reading strategy: pulling together information in a meaningful way through written or oral presentations

making predictions

reading strategy: reaching conclusions and imagine outcomes based on prior knowledge combined with new knowledge

using imagery

reading strategy: using imagination to create pictures in the mind about what has been read or studied and then communicate what is imagined


reading strategy: constructing meaning through written expression. re-read and write about a story or create a new story based on given story elements


reading strategy: respond to stories by telling them to somebody else, by role-playing, drawing pictures or using storyboards

sight word vocabulary

Developing a strong _____ _____ _____ is an important part of learning to read. It is especially important for children with learning disabilities in basic reading and those who cannot use phonics skills to decode words.

reading fluency

a combination of automaticity and accuracy while reading a passage


As a word identification strategy, structural analysis would be most effective in helping eight graders determine the meaning of which of the following words?

A. Sartorial
B. Wisteria
C. Haberdasher
D. Bibliophile


The Great Pyramid at Giza is approximately 150 meters high and has a square base approximately 230 meters on a side. What is the approximate area of a horizontal cross section of the pyramid taken 50 meters above its base?

A. 5880 square meters
B. 11760 square meters
C. 23510 square meters
D. 35270 square meters


Enlightenment thinkers most influenced subsequent developments in European history by

A. restoring traditional ideals taht emphasized the benefits of a hierarchical ordering of society
B. championing reforms that extended political rights to people from all social classes
C. applying reason and the scientific method to the study of all aspects of social and political life
D. seeking to restore religious unity that had been disrupted by the Protestant Reformation


On a class field trip, students encounter some brightly colored shelf-like structures attached to the trunk of a dead tree. Which of the following is the best description of how this organism obtains matter and energy from its environment?

A. it obtains energy from the dead wood and absorbs carbon dioxide and water vapor from the air.
B. It obtains energy from sunlight, absorbs carbon from the dead wood and obtains water vapor from the air.
C. It obtains energy from sunlight and obtains carbon and water from the dead wood.
D. It obtains energy, carbon and water from the dead wood.

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